Joallyn archambault biography template
No Comments Comments are closed. Once launched into the water these craft are capable of making extremely long journeys through the ice.
Huge tracks of land were exposed meaning the continents of Asia and America were joined with a bridge of land linking Siberia and Alaska across what is now the Baring Strait. It seemed clear that this was the route the Clovis people must have taken as they undertook an intrepid journey across into a new continent 11, years ago, so their story entered the history books.
The first Americans were the Clovis, a people from Asia, and they had stayed isolated ruling America for 11, years until their first fatal contact with Columbus and the people of Europe in It became an accepted fact. It was such a powerful story that for years no archaeologist bothered to look back beyond 11, years ago.
Everyone knew there could be nothing there, so no-one dug any deeper, but one day somebody did. Jim Adovasio has spent the past 30 years excavating an ancient settlement near Pittsburgh.
Layer upon layer telling the story of who lived here and when going back at least 11, years. On these surfaces that you see before us we have signs of repeated visits by Native Americans to this site. These discolorations literally represent a moment frozen in time. Just below the surface I'm standing on roughly 11, years ago is where the conventional Clovis first model says that the earliest material should stop basically, that there ought not to be anything beneath it, no matter how much deeper we dug.
But then Adovasio did the unthinkable - he dug below the Clovis layer - and that's when the trouble started. The artefacts simply continued and we recovered blades and blade cores like this all the way down to 16,BC. If Adovasio was right then someone had been in America thousands of years before Clovis.
It was an astonishing revelation. In fact it was too astonishing. When Adovasio published his findings he was simply dismissed out of hand. The majority of the archaeological community was acutely sceptical and they invented all kinds of reasons why these dates couldn't possibly be right. People have invested in the Clovis first position for more than 70 years.
For a lot of people they think that this is not only a repudiation of a well accepted dogma, it's a repudiation of themselves. And so it was for other scientists. Anyone who dug back beyond 11, years ago had to be either mad or worse. The best way in the world to get beaten up professionally is to claim you have a pre-Clovis site. When you dig deeper than Clovis a lot of people do not report it because they're worried about the reaction of their colleagues.
And then accused of planting artefacts. People will reject radiocarbon dates if they're older than 11, years ago just simply because there's not supposed to be any people here at those times and it just goes on and on and on. And so it could have stayed. The Clovis theory remained dominant with just a few awkward dissenters, but then something happened which opened up the whole mystery once more. Douglas Wallace is not an archaeologist, but nonetheless he is trying to write a complete history of the world.
It's just that his history is based on the science of genetics. We can get insight into our history by looking at modern DNA samples. If and when we need a sample from a population in Africa or a population in Asia we can then go to that tube, pull that tube out, resurrect those cells, amplify them, isolate their DNA and ask yet a new question.
As humans reproduce mitochondrial DNA is passed along the female line from mother to daughter. The only change that takes place is when there are mistakes in copying as the cells reproduce. The mistakes are called mutations and they take place with a clock-like regularity. By comparing the number of mutations in his samples from around the globe Wallace could trace not only the route our ancestors followed as they migrated across the planet, but also when they did it. So what we've been able to do using genetic variation and comparing the genetic variation of aboriginal populations from all the major continents of the world we've literally been able to reconstruct the history of migration.
Sp the DNA should tell Wallace not just where the first American came from, but even when they made the journey. They all came from Siberia and north-eastern Asia. So far this discovery was consistent with the Clovis theory, but then came the revelation. When he worked out the dates he realised there were several waves of migration and the earliest group had come over nearly 10, years before the Clovis, some 20, years ago. Immediately Wallace thought he had to be wrong. He repeated his work. So did other labs. The results were absolutely clear.
All of the papers that had been published have come to a very similar conclusion: There was now no doubt. The epic Clovis theory had to be wrong. The great quest to uncover the story of the early settlement of America had to start all over again.
Archaeologists decided to go back to basics and none more so than Dennis Stanford from the Smithsonian Institute. He started with what was still the only real clue: He decided to look for spear points along the route from Asia to America trying to see if he could trace the people who had brought the Clovis Point to the Americas, but as he worked back through Alaska and then Siberia the trail went dead. The only tools he found were quite different. After looking at the collections we were disappointed that we didn't find what we thought we would find and I was surprised to find that the technologies were so much different.
In Siberia he found Asian tools that bore no relation to Clovis Points at all. Most were made from lots of small flints called micro- blades embedded in a bone handle. Microblade technology is striking a long thin flake from the core and then making a projectile point or a knife blade out of bone and then cutting a slot in it and then putting the microblade in the slot and that's a totally different philosophy entirely than using the bifacial projectile point, as you can see here, it's just a total different mindset.
There was now a real puzzle. The man who set out to solve this paradox was archaeologist Bruce Bradley. Bradley has a skill that allows him to see things in stone tools that others cannot. He's a flint knapper, an expert at crafting flint objects. So what I'm doing here is I'm choosing to be Clovis, in other words I'm choosing a Clovis approach to this piece of stone now. I'm going to grind it a little bit, strengthen it.
If he could work out how the Points had been made it might be a clue to who the people were who had brought them to America.
Every piece that we find, if you know how to read it, can tell you the story of the technology from which it comes. What Bradley found was that the Clovis Points didn't just look distinctive, they had also been made in a very distinctive way. You can see how this, starting from this side went and took off this whole other side. Now I've set up to do, go this way.
The result of this process is that the flint flakes off in large, useable chunks. Such flakes have been found wherever you find Clovis Points. Not only do I have a spear point, but with this technology I have a large number of big, useable flakes that are going to be very good for making other kinds of tools and so every single flake has that little story to tell. Bradley was certain that the big flakes had to be a clue.
Whoever had made the Clovis Point had used a technique quite different to that used in Asia, so where had they come from and then he remembered a textbook he had seen when he was a student. It showed pictures of ancient spearheads made 20, years ago, long before Clovis, by a people called the Solutreans, but their points looked very like Clovis Points.
The trouble was that the Solutreans came from France. Nevertheless, the idea began to form in his mind. No matter what the textbooks of the DNA might say, perhaps some of the earliest Americans were not Asian, but European.
It was sacrilege to even mention the possibility, you know, it, it certainly wasn't part of the scientific process at that point in time. There was no possibility, forget it, don't even think about it.
The heresy was that it was a challenge to the identity of Native Americans. They believed they were an Asian people with no European blood at all. It had long been a crucial part of their culture. Before we run around suggesting that the Native Americans of Asian origin are not the original peoplers of the Americas, we should think long and hard about what the consequences of saying those things might be. There are historical reasons for that. Some Indian people will undoubtedly find it upsetting.
The thought that some of our ancestors might come from Europe, the very peoples who conquered us and took away our land and colonised us, will not be a comfortable thought with many Indian people and I really can't blame them. Despite the controversy Bradley was stirring up, he decided to pursue his idea. He went to south-western France where the Solutreans had lived 17, years earlier. In his mind was one simple question: In France one thing became abundantly clear.
The Solutreans were a remarkable people. Of all the Stone Age cultures that we've studied, the Solutrean people continually come out as being the most innovative, the most adaptive and probably the most inventive. We have evidence that they invented the heat treatment of flint to make it better to flake. I mean they invented all kinds of things like the eyed needle and the, the list goes on and on and on.
Bradley's research took him to the local museum in the town of Les Eyzies. What he saw were displays of hundreds of what looked very like Clovis Points. I see this stuff and I just, it's, I don't know, it's so exciting.
The similarity is just, it's mind-boggling. What we're seeing here is only the finished objects, only the things that museum people thought were really good for display. It doesn't always show you how things were made. To establish a link between the Solutreans and the earliest Americans he needed to find out if they shared the same technology. Had the Solutreans used the same big flake method to make those spearheads?
And there in the drawers he found what he needed, clear signs that the Solutreans really had made their spearheads just like the early Americans.
The thing that I first noticed when I looked in this drawer specifically was a few pieces right on the very top - this is a good example here - that shows a kind of flaking that, where the flake is struck from one side and went across the surface removed some of the other side and these pieces show it over and over and over again.
I mean just about any piece you pick up shows this very special technique. This is the technique we see uniquely in Clovis and when I saw so much of it just sitting there I just knew there had to be some kind of a connection. There's nothing in here specifically that makes them Solutrean except that we're in France and they came from here. To Bradley it was the first proof of a direct link between the people of America and Europe, but critics pointed to one problem in particular.
The Solutreans had lived 17, years ago and the Clovis Point had apparently not arrived in America until 11, years ago. Where had the Solutreans been in the intervening five thousand years? It was a question that even troubled Bradley's colleagues. I was going through the old arguments, yeah, well Solutreans, five thousand years older than Clovis and you've got the Atlantic Ocean out there, so I wasn't convinced that we really ought to push forward on it.
Bradley needed to find something to bridge the 5, year gap between the Solutreans and the Clovis and then from a site called Cactus Hill in Virginia a wonder: And here we have a projectile point from a feature that dates right at 15, years or 16, years ago which is clearly right in the middle between Clovis and Solutrean and what's really exciting about it is that the technology here is very similar to Solutrean.
In fact it's closer to Solutrean than Clovis where you can see that it's in a progression between Solutrean and Clovis so you have Solutrean, Cactus Hill and Clovis. The evidence of the points was that there was no 5, year gap.
Smithsonian anthropologist JoAllyn Archambault speaks about the outstanding research of 19th-century anthropologist James Mooney
The Solutreans hadn't disappeared. They seemed somehow to have gone from France to America some 16, years ago, but it was still far from proof. Critics pointed out a massive problem, one that was 5, kilometres wide: How, they asked, could a Stone Age people have made a journey that was thought to be beyond mankind until thousands of years later?
The fact was the Solutreans lived in south-west France. Between their settlements here on the coast and America lay one of the biggest expanses of water in the world and there was something that made the journey far more formidable then: The environment would have been pretty much a frozen environment similar to what we see in the Arctic today and the ice was the furthest south that it, that it ever got. The environment would have been almost diametrically opposed to what we see here today. We wouldn't see people lounging on the beach.
At the time of the Solutreans ice-sheets stretched down from the Arctic obliterating life as far south as southern France. The weather, even in south-western France, would have dropped to 20 degrees below freezing. The Atlantic would have been thick with icebergs and over-run with blizzards. It is difficult to conceive of a journey to America through this. There are 5, kilometres of open North Atlantic Ice Age conditions to be crossed. There are icebergs floating around in the Bay of Biscay and it's a polar desert. The problem confronting Bradley and Stanford was to show how the Solutreans could have survived these extraordinarily harsh conditions.
Could this Stone Age people have used their technology to take them across an ocean? Indian artists -- United States.
Indian painting -- United States. Indian pottery -- Southwest, New -- Exhibitions. Inuit art -- Canada -- Exhibitions. Modernism Art -- United States. Pueblo art -- New Mexico. Southwest, New -- In art. Roybal, Leon T and Cheryl R. Running-Wolf, Eddie Runningwolf Sr. This file contains the following listed artists, which have been grouped together under Tiger Gallery. Friday April 21 Abstract Collection of printed materials on Southwest artists, with the focus on Native American artists. Artist specific printed materials Series 2: Oversize materials Series 1: James Michael Byrnes; also known as: Bushyhead, Jerome and Charles Butz Jr.
Vancouver, Canada Please note: Coochwytewa, Victor Cook, Gary D.JoAllyn Archambault - 19th Century Anthropologist James Mooney's Outstanding Research
Aboriginal Art of Australia. The Society for Historical Archaeology. Fetishes and Carvings of the Southwest. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Treasure Chest Publications Inc.
Haida Totems in Wood and Argillite. Historic Saddle Blankets from the Getzwiller Collection: