Autobiography of any successful industrialist castle
Christiano Ronaldo — Portuguese footballer. Schwab no relation to Charles R.
By the age of fifteen, he had already left home to take an apprenticeship with a printer in Vermont. It was his work with the Tribune that made him famous, and he would actually go on to help found a town in Colorado that bears his name.
To this day, he is thought of as one of the most influential journalists in history. During the tense space race of the s and s, one man emerged as the face of the American attempt to beat the Soviets into space and, ultimately, to the moon.
That man was John Glenn: There have been many great thinkers of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, and some of them have done incredible things without ever having finished college. Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg spring to mind.
But perhaps the most influential technological mind of the past century has been Steve Jobs, the co-founder of Apple. Jobs and Steve Wozniak created the first successful personal computers, and over the years helped introduce numerous revolutionary products such as the iPod, iPhone, and iPad.
And Jobs did this after attending college for only six months. Incidentally, Jobs was adopted, and the stipulation set forth by his birth mother only agreed to give him up to Paul and Clara Jobs when they agreed that they would make sure he attended college. Well, mission partly accomplished. Carnegie started work as a telegrapherand by the s had investments in railroads, railroad sleeping cars, bridges, and oil derricks.
He accumulated further wealth as a bond salesman, raising money for American enterprise in Europe. After selling Carnegie Steel, he surpassed John D. Rockefeller as the richest American for the next couple of years. Carnegie devoted the remainder of his life to large-scale philanthropy, with special emphasis on local librariesworld peace, education, and scientific research. Andrew Carnegie was born in Dunfermline, Scotland inin a typical weaver's cottage with only one main room, consisting of half the ground floor which was shared with the neighboring weaver's family.
His uncle, George Lauder Sr. Lauder's son, also named George Laudergrew up with Andrew and would become his business partner. When Carnegie was thirteen, his father had fallen on very hard times as a handloom weaver; making matters worse, the country was in starvation. His mother helped support the family by assisting her brother a cobblerand by selling potted meats at her "sweetie shop".
By the s, she was the primary breadwinner. Andrew's family had to borrow money from the Lauders in order to migrate. The "Made in Allegheny" label used on these and other diversified products was becoming more and more popular. He was a very hard worker and would memorize all of the locations of Pittsburgh's businesses and the faces of important men.
He made many connections this way. He also paid close attention to his work, and quickly learned to distinguish the differing sounds the incoming telegraph signals produced.
He developed the ability to translate signals by ear, without using the paper slip,  and within a year was promoted to operator. Carnegie's education and passion for reading was given a great boost by Colonel James Anderson, who opened his personal library of volumes to working boys each Saturday night. He was so grateful to Colonel Anderson for the use of his library that he "resolved, if ever wealth came to me, [to see to it] that other poor boys might receive opportunities similar to those for which we were indebted to the noble man".
Starting inThomas A. Carnegie accepted this job with the railroad as he saw more prospects for career growth and experience with the railroad than with the telegraph company. Carnegie then hired his sixteen-year-old brother, Tom, to be his personal secretary and telegraph operator. Not only did Carnegie hire his brother, but he also hired his cousin, Maria Hogan, who became the first female telegraph operator in the country.
The railroads were the first big businesses in America, and the Pennsylvania was one of the largest of them all. Carnegie learned much about management and cost control during these years, and from Scott in particular. Scott also helped him with his first investments. Many of these were part of the corruption indulged in by Scott and the Pennsylvania's president, John Edgar Thomsonwhich consisted of inside trading in companies that the railroad did business with, or payoffs made by contracting parties "as part of a quid pro quo ".
Reinvesting his returns in such inside investments in railroad-related industries: Throughout his later career, he made use of his close connections to Thomson and Scott, as he established businesses that supplied rails and bridges to the railroad, offering the two men a stake in his enterprises. The investment proved a great success and a source of profit for Woodruff and Carnegie. The young Carnegie continued to work for the Pennsylvania's Tom Scott, and introduced several improvements in the service. In springCarnegie was appointed by Scott, who was now Assistant Secretary of War in charge of military transportation, as Superintendent of the Military Railways and the Union Government's telegraph lines in the East.
Carnegie helped open the rail lines into Washington D. Following the defeat of Union forces at Bull Runhe personally supervised the transportation of the defeated forces. Under his organization, the telegraph service rendered efficient service to the Union cause and significantly assisted in the eventual victory. Carnegie later joked that he was "the first casualty of the war" when he gained a scar on his cheek from freeing a trapped telegraph wire. Defeat of the Confederacy required vast supplies of munitionsas well as railroads and telegraph lines to deliver the goods.
The war demonstrated how integral the industries were to American success. The demand for iron products, such as armor for gunboats, cannons, and shells, as well as a hundred other industrial products, made Pittsburgh a center of wartime production. Carnegie worked with others in establishing a steel rolling milland steel production and control of industry became the source of his fortune. Carnegie had some investments in the iron industry before the war. After the war, Carnegie left the railroads to devote all his energies to the ironworks trade.
Carnegie worked to develop several iron works, eventually forming the Keystone Bridge Works and the Union Ironworks, in Pittsburgh. Although he had left the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, he remained closely connected to its management, namely Thomas A.
He used his connection to the two men to acquire contracts for his Keystone Bridge Company and the rails produced by his ironworks.
He also gave stock to Scott and Thomson in his businesses, and the Pennsylvania was his best customer. When he built his first steel plant, he made a point of naming it after Thomson. As well as having good business sense, Carnegie possessed charm and literary knowledge. He was invited to many important social functions—functions that Carnegie exploited to his own advantage. Beyond this I need ever earn, make no effort to increase my fortune, but spend the surplus each year for benevolent purposes!
Let us cast aside business forever, except for others. Let us settle in Oxford and I shall get a thorough education, making the acquaintance of literary men.
I figure that this will take three years active work. I shall pay especial attention to speaking in public. We can settle in London and I can purchase a controlling interest in some newspaper or live review and give the general management of it attention, taking part in public matters, especially those connected with education and improvement of the poorer classes.
Man must have no idol and the amassing of wealth is one of the worst species of idolatry! No idol is more debasing than the worship of money!
Whatever I engage in I must push inordinately; therefore should I be careful to choose that life which will be the most elevating in its character. To continue much longer overwhelmed by business cares and with most of my thoughts wholly upon the way to make more money in the shortest time, must degrade me beyond hope of permanent recovery.
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I will resign business at thirty-five, but during these ensuing two years I wish to spend the afternoons in receiving instruction and in reading systematically! Carnegie did not want to marry during his mother's lifetime, instead choosing to take care of her in her illness towards the end of her life.
Carnegie made his fortune in the steel industrycontrolling the most extensive integrated iron and steel operations ever owned by an individual in the United States. One of his two great innovations was in the cheap and efficient mass production of steel by adopting and adapting the Bessemer process for steel making. Sir Henry Bessemer had invented the furnace which allowed the high carbon content of pig iron to be burnt away in a controlled and rapid way. The steel price dropped as a direct result, and Bessemer steel was rapidly adopted for rails; however, it was not suitable for buildings and bridges.
The second was in his vertical integration of all suppliers of raw materials.
In the late s, Carnegie Steel was the largest manufacturer of pig ironsteel rails, and coke in the world, with a capacity to produce approximately 2, tons of pig metal per day. Bythe U. Carnegie's empire grew to include the J. Carnegie, through Keystone, supplied the steel for and owned shares in the landmark Eads Bridge project across the Mississippi River at St. Louis, Missouri completed This project was an important proof-of-concept for steel technology, which marked the opening of a new steel market.
InCarnegie was 66 years of age and considering retirement. He reformed his enterprises into conventional joint stock corporations as preparation to this end. John Pierpont Morgan was a banker and perhaps America's most important financial deal maker. He had observed how efficiently Carnegie produced profit. He envisioned an integrated steel industry that would cut costs, lower prices to consumers, produce in greater quantities and raise wages to workers. To this end, he needed to buy out Carnegie and several other major producers and integrate them into one company, thereby eliminating duplication and waste.
The buyout, secretly negotiated by Charles M. Schwab no relation to Charles R. Schwabwas the largest such industrial takeover in United States history to date. The holdings were incorporated in the United States Steel Corporation, a trust organized by Morgan, and Carnegie retired from business. The letter agreeing to sell his share was signed on February 26, Franks, Carnegie's business secretary. It was said that " Carnegie never wanted to see or touch these bonds that represented the fruition of his business career.
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Christiano Ronaldo — Portuguese footballer. Carnegie also obtained greater efficiency by purchasing the coke fields and iron-ore deposits that furnished the raw materials for steelmaking, as well as the ships and railroads that transported these supplies to his mills. The vertical integration thus achieved was another milestone in American manufacturing. Carnegie also recruited extremely capable subordinates to work for him, including the administrator Henry Clay Frickthe steelmaster and inventor Captain Bill Jones, and his own brother Thomas M.
The Carnegie Steel Company continued to prosper even during the depression ofwhich was marked by the bloody Homestead strike. Although Carnegie professed support for the rights of unions, his goals of economy and efficiency may have made him favour local management at the Homestead plant, which used Pinkerton guards to try to break the Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers. Carnegie sold his company to J. He subsequently retired and devoted himself to his philanthropic activities, which were themselves vast. The Carnegie Corporation of New York has aided colleges and universities and libraries, as well as research and training in law, economics, and medicine.
Carnegie married Louise Whitfield in Articles from Britannica encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. In the United States produced about 69, tons of steel. Just 30 years later the United States produced more than 11 million tons. No man was more responsible for that growth in the U. Carnegie made a fortune from his steel companies. After his retirement he donated most of his money to educational and social causes.