Ardeshir tafti biography definition
An autobiography is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter. Biographical novels are frequently the foundation for film adaptations into the filmographic genre of biographical film. Influential in shaping popular conceptions of pirates, A General History of the Pyrates , by Charles Johnson, is the prime source for the biographies of many well-known pirates.
Biographical novels are frequently the foundation for film adaptations into the filmographic genre of biographical film. For more reflection on the different types of biographical information used in literature, see Biography in literature.
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January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved from " https: Literary genres Biographical novels Biography genre. Articles lacking sources from January All articles lacking sources. Giorgio Vasari 's Lives of the Artists was the landmark biography focusing on secular lives. Vasari made celebrities of his subjects, as the Lives became an early "bestseller".
Two other developments are noteworthy: John Foxe 's Actes and Monumentsbetter known as Foxe's Book of Martyrswas essentially the first dictionary of the biography in Europe, followed by Thomas Fuller 's The History of the Worthies of Englandwith a distinct focus on public life. Influential in shaping popular conceptions of pirates, A General History of the Pyratesby Charles Johnson, is the prime source for the biographies of many well-known pirates.
The American biography followed the English model, incorporating Thomas Carlyle 's view that biography was a part of history.
Carlyle asserted that the lives of great human beings were essential to understanding society and its institutions. While the historical impulse would remain a strong element in early American biography, American writers carved out a distinct approach. What emerged was a rather didactic form of biography, which sought to shape the individual character of a reader in the process of defining national character. The first modern biography, and a work which exerted considerable influence on the evolution of the genre, was James Boswell 's The Life of Samuel Johnsona biography of lexicographer and man-of-letters Samuel Johnson published in Itself an important stage in the development of the modern genre of biography, it has been claimed to be the greatest biography written in the English language.
Boswell's work was unique in its level of research, which involved archival study, eye-witness accounts and interviews, its robust and attractive narrative, and its honest depiction of all aspects of Johnson's life and character - a formula which serves as the basis of biographical literature to this day.
Biographical writing generally stagnated during the 19th century - in many cases there was a reversal to the more familiar hagiographical method of eulogizing the dead, similar to the biographies of saints produced in Medieval times.
A distinction between mass biography and literary biography began to form by the middle of the century, reflecting a breach between high culture and middle-class culture. However, the number of biographies in print experienced a rapid growth, thanks to an expanding reading public. This revolution in publishing made books available to a larger audience of readers. In addition, affordable paperback editions of popular biographies were published for the first time. Periodicals began publishing a sequence of biographical sketches.
Autobiographies became more popular, as with the rise of education and cheap printing, modern concepts of fame and celebrity began to develop. Autobiographies were written by authors, such as Charles Dickens who incorporated autobiographical elements in his novels and Anthony Trollopehis Autobiography appeared posthumously, quickly becoming a bestseller in London philosophers, such as John Stuart Millchurchmen — John Henry Newman — and entertainers — P.full explanation of biography
Human behavior would be explained through Darwinian theories. The development of psychoanalysis led to a more penetrating and comprehensive understanding of the biographical subject, and induced biographers to give more emphasis to childhood and adolescence. Clearly these psychological ideas were changing the way biographies were written, as a culture of autobiography developed, in which the telling of one's own story became a form of therapy.
British critic Lytton Strachey revolutionized the art of biographical writing with his work Eminent Victoriansconsisting of biographies of four leading figures from the Victorian era: His narrative demolished the myths that had built up around these cherished national heroes, whom he regarded as no better than a "set of mouth bungled hypocrites". The book achieved worldwide fame due to its irreverent and witty style, its concise and factually accurate nature, and its artistic prose.
In the s and '30s, biographical writers sought to capitalize on Strachey's popularity by imitating his style. Robert Graves I, Claudiusstood out among those following Strachey's model of "debunking biographies. This latter form's appeal to readers was based on curiosity more than morality or patriotism. By World War Icheap hard-cover reprints had become popular.
The decades of the s witnessed a biographical "boom. The feminist scholar Carolyn Heilbrun observed that women's biographies and autobiographies began to change character during the second wave of feminist activism.
She cited Nancy Milford's biography Zeldaas the "beginning of a new period of women's biography, because "[only] in were we ready to read not that Zelda had destroyed Fitzgeraldbut Fitzgerald her: In recent years, multimedia biography has become more popular than traditional literary forms.
Along with documentary biographical filmsHollywood produced numerous commercial films based on the lives of famous people. CD-ROM and online biographies have also appeared. Unlike books and films, they often do not tell a chronological narrative: Biography-Portraits were created inby the German artist Ralph Ueltzhoeffer. Media scholar Lev Manovich says that such archives exemplify the database form, allowing users to navigate the materials in many ways.
In recent years, debates have arisen as to whether all biographies are fiction, especially when authors are writing about figures from the past. President of Wolfson College at Oxford University, Hermione Lee argues that all history is seen through a perspective that is the product of our contemporary society and as a result biographical truths are constantly shifting. So the history biographers write about will not be the way that it happened; it will be the way they remembered it.
Biographical research is defined by Miller as a research method that collects and analyses a person's whole life, or portion of a life, through the in-depth and unstructured interview, or sometimes reinforced by semi-structured interview or personal documents.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Biography disambiguation. For the Wikipedia policy on biographies of living persons, see Wikipedia: Biographies of living persons.
Biography portal Literature portal. Introduction and commentary by David Cordingly.
Conway Maritime Press The First Modern Biography". University of Mary Washington Libraries.