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Thomas stamford raffles biography of abraham

thomas stamford raffles biography of abraham
In he was sent to what is now Penang in the country of Malaysia , then called the Prince of Wales Island, starting his long association with Southeast Asia. Colonel Bannerman's death in Penang in October brought new opportunities for Raffles to expand his power to also include the other minor British factories and outposts from Sumatra to Cochin China. As well as the treaty, instructions were sent out to Raffles to undertake far less intrusive actions; however, distance between the Far East and Europe meant that the orders had no chance of reaching Raffles in time.

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Sir Stamford Raffles British colonial agent.

thomas stamford raffles biography of abraham

Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles. Learn More in these related articles: The French and the British in Java, — Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback. Keep Exploring Britannica Ronald Reagan.

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thomas stamford raffles biography of abraham

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Sir Stamford Raffles

For a discussion of the history and nature of the You have successfully emailed this. Malacca was one of the many British territories returned to the Dutch under the Treaty of Vienna.

Raffles had foreseen that without a strategic British trading post located within the Straitsthe Dutch could gain control of Straits trade. Accompanied by William Farquhar and a sepoyhe met Temenggong Abdul Rahman to negotiate for a British trading post to be established on the island. The plan comprised the formation of separate clusters to house the different ethnic groups, and the provision of facilities such as roads, schools and land for government buildings.

Singapore was chosen, by virtue of its strategic geographical location, to compete with other ports under the control of the Dutch.

He founded the Resident Court, appointed magistrates, and implemented trial by jury. In addition, he instituted the abolishment of activities such as public gambling, slavery and cock-fighting. The building was completed only inand was occupied by the Singapore Free School which operated as the Singapore Institution Free School. Gains employment as a clerk at the British East India Company.

Becomes assistant secretary to Philip Dundas, the governor of Penang. Appointed by Lord Minto, the governor-general of India —as agent to the governor-general of the Malay States. Appointed lieutenant-governor of Java. The first detailed English-language account of Prambanan was prepared by Colin Mackenzie while Borobudur was surveyed and cleared of vegetation by H. Under the harsh conditions of the island, his wife, Olivia, died on 26 Novemberan event that devastated Raffles.

Inhe left again for England shortly before the island of Java was returned to control of the Netherlands following the Napoleonic Warsunder the terms of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of Raffles had been removed from his post by the East India Company ahead of the handover and officially replaced by John Fendall on account of the poor financial performance of the colony during his administration and allegations of financial impropriety on his own part.

He sailed to England in early to clear his name and, en route, visited Napoleonwho was in exile at St.

thomas stamford raffles biography of abraham

Helenabut found him unpleasant and unimpressive. InRaffles wrote and published a book entitled The History of Java[6] describing the history of the island from ancient times. In he was knighted and created a Knight Bachelor by the Prince Regent whose daughter, Princess Charlottewas particularly close to him.

thomas stamford raffles biography of abraham

At the publication of the book, he also stopped using the name "Thomas", preferring to use his middle name, "Stamford", possibly to avoid confusion amongst his associates with Sir Thomas Sevestre or his cousin Thomas Raffles who bore the same name. On 22 February he married his second wife, Sophia Hull.

He was appointed as the Governor-General of Bencoolen now Bengkulu in Indonesia on 15 Octoberand set sail to take the post with his new wife.

Raffles arrived in Bencoolen Bengkulu on 19 March Despite the prestige connected with the title of Governor-General, Bencoolen was a colonial backwater whose only real export was pepper and only the murder of a previous Resident, Thomas Parr, gained it any attention back home in Britain.

Raffles found the place wrecked, and set about reforms immediately, mostly similar to what he had done in Java — abolishing slavery and limiting cockfighting and such games.

To replace the slaves, he used a contingent of convictsalready sent to him from India. It is at this point when he realized the importance of a British presence that both challenged the Dutch hegemony in the area and could remain consistently profitable, unlike Bencoolen or Batavia. However, the strategic importance of poorly maintained but well-positioned British possessions such as Penang or Bencoolen made it impossible for the British to abandon such unprofitable colonies in such proximity to the Dutch in Java. The competition in the area, between Raffles and the aggressive Dutch de jure Governor, Elout, certainly led at least in part to the later Anglo-Dutch Treaty of Raffles looked into alternatives in the area — namely Bangka, which had been ceded to the Dutch after its conquest by the British during its occupation of Java.

Bintan was also under consideration. Despite the fact that Francis Light overlooked the island before settling upon Penang inthe Riau Archipelago was an attractive choice just to the south of the Malay Peninsulafor its proximity to Malacca.

In his correspondences with Calcutta, Raffles also emphasized the need to establish a certain amount of influence with the native chiefs, which had greatly waned since the return of the Dutch. Raffles sent Thomas Travers as an ambassador to the Dutch, to possibly negotiate an expansion of British economic interests. When this failed, and when Raffles' own expeditions into his new dominion found only treacherous terrain and few exportable goods, his desire to establish a better British presence was cemented.

However, the Anglo-Dutch Convention of was not completely clear, especially on the issue of certain possessions such as Padang.

The Convention of only returned Dutch territory that was held beforewhich did not include Padang. Raffles asserted the British claim personally, leading a small expedition to the Sultanate of Minangkabau. Yet, as Raffles confirmed with the sultan regarding the absolute British influence of the area, he realized that the local rulers had only limited power over the well-cultivated and civilized country, and the treaty was largely symbolic and had little actual force. Meanwhile, Major William Farquharthe British Resident of Malacca, had been attempting to negotiate commercial treaties with the local chiefs of the Riau Archipelago, especially before Raffles's arrival.

Stamford Raffles's career and contributions to Singapore

Farquhar was compelled to sign the treaty not with the official head of the sultanate, but rather, the Raja Muda Regent or Crown Prince of Riau. He noted it as a success and reported it as such to Raffles. Raffles sailed to Malacca in late to personally secure a British presence in the Riau area, especially Singapurawhich was favoured by him both through the readings of Malayan histories and by Farquhar's explorations. Despite Lord Hastings' less-than-stellar opinion of Raffles before which had necessitated his trip to England to clear his name at the end of his tenure as Governor-General of Javathe now well-connected and successful Raffles was able to secure permission to set up a settlement.

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At this point in Malaysian history the name Lion City was applied. The city was in a strategically advantageous position; however, he was ordered not to provoke the Dutch, and his subsequent actions were officially disavowed by the British government. In London, Viscount Castlereagh attempted to quell Dutch fears, and continuing efforts were made to reach an agreement between the nations that eventually became the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of London of As well as the treaty, instructions were sent out to Raffles to undertake far less intrusive actions; however, distance between the Far East and Europe meant that the orders had no chance of reaching Raffles in time.

thomas stamford raffles biography of abraham

After a brief survey of the Karimun Islandson 29 Januaryhe established a post at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. It was established that there was no Dutch presence on the island of Singapore. Johore also no longer had any control of the area, so contact was made with the local Temenggong, or Raja.

The contacts were friendly and Raffles, knowledgeable about the muddled political situation, took advantage to provide a rudimentary treaty between the nominal chiefs of the area that called for the exclusivity of trade and the British protection of the area. Members of Raffles' party surveyed the island and proceeded to request the presence of the sultan, or whoever at the time had supreme nominal power, to sign a formal treaty, while Major Farquhar was ordered to do the same in Rhio Riau.

A few days later, the formal treaty was signed by a man who claimed to be the "lawful sovereign of the whole of territories extending from Lingga and Johor to Mount Muar. This man was Hussein Shah of Johorwho, although having had no previous contact with the British, had certainly heard of the might of the British navy and was in no position to argue against the terms.

thomas stamford raffles biography of abraham

However, Raffles was able to charm the man and to reassure him that the Dutch posed no threat in the area. Hussein Shah had been the crown Prince of Johor, but while he was away in Pahang to get married, his father died and his younger brother was made sultan, supported by some of the court officials and the Dutch. To circumvent the situation of having to negotiate with a sultan influenced by the Dutch, Raffles decided to recognise, on behalf of the British Crown, Hussein Shah as being the rightful ruler of Johor. Farquhar's attempt to establish a more favorable treaty in Rhio Riau was met with greater challenge, as the Dutch were present and made for a rather awkward position.

The Dutch were alarmed and sent a small contingent to the island. Despite a covert offer of subterfuge against the Dutch offered by the Raja of Rhio RiauFarquhar returned and an official protest was sent by the Raja to Java regarding the matter.

Raffles declared the foundation of what was to become modern Singapore on 6 February, securing the transfer of control of the island to the East India Company. With much pomp and ceremony, the official treaty was read aloud in languages representing all nations present, as well as the Malay and Chinese inhabitants.

Although ownership of the post was to be exclusively British, explicit orders were given to Farquhar to maintain free passage of ships through the Strait of Singapore and a small military presence was established alongside the trading post.

After issuing orders to Farquhar and the remaining Europeans, Raffles left the next day, 7 February Raffles also planned to start a British presence in Achinon the northern tip of Sumatra.

Stamford Raffles

As soon as he had departed, the Raja of Rhio Riau sent letters to the Dutch, disclaiming the deal, protesting innocence and blaming British encroachment. Meanwhile, in Malacca the Dutch acted at once, commanding that no Malays could go to Singapore.

Raffles' bold claim of Singapore created a curious geographic situation: This undoubtedly irked the authorities in Penang to the point where they refused to send any sepoys to Singapore to complete the garrison.

thomas stamford raffles biography of abraham

Official Dutch complaints came before the end of the month, and Raffles attempted to appease the situation by instructing Farquhar to not interfere with the politics of surrounding islands. Despite numerous threats and serious considerations by the Dutch Governor-General in Java, they did not take any military action. The confused political situation in Johore and Rhio also created a certain uneasiness and instability for the two nations.

Stamford Raffles

Tengku Long was claimed to be a pretender to the throne, and, since the succession laws in the Malay sultanates were not clear cut, treaties signed between native rulers and the European powers always seemed to be on the verge of invalidation; especially if a sultan should be deposed by one of his siblings or other pretenders. Nonetheless amidst uncertainty and intrigue, Raffles landed in Achin on 14 Marchwith begrudging help of Penang. Once again, it seems that multiple people were in power, but none wanted to formally deal with the British. The hostile atmosphere created allowed Raffles to cancel the only meeting he was able to arrange, with Panglima Polima powerful divisional chief, fearing treachery.

As the influential merchant John PalmerRaffles, and fellow commissioner John Monckton Coombs of Penang sat offshore, awaiting a response, Calcutta debated whether to reinforce the port city.

Evacuation plans were made, but the Dutch never acted and ultimately Lord Hastings prompted Colonel Bannerman, the Governor of Penangto send funds to bolster Singapore.

thomas stamford raffles biography of abraham

Finally Raffles was capable of convincing his fellow commissioners to sign a treaty with Jauhar al-Alam Shahthe ruler of Achin, which installed a British resident as well as guaranteeing the exclusivity of bi-lateral trade. By the time Raffles had returned to Singapore, on 31 May, much of the immediate crisis that the colony had caused in Penang and Calcutta had passed. By then, the initial five-hundred villagers had grown to become five-thousand merchants, soldiers, and administrators packed onto the island.

Raffles was determined to destroy the Dutch mercantile monopoly in the area to replace it with a gateway for trade with China and Japan. The latter had attempted but failed to reach an agreement while governing Java. While in Singapore, Raffles established schools and churches in the native languages. He allowed missionaries and local businesses to flourish.

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