Philip ii biography summary organizer
Philip II B. Early Life Philip's first marriage was to his cousin Maria of Portugal, who lived but 2 years, leaving a son, Don Carlos. Culturally the Macedonians were less advanced than their southern Greek neighbors, had remained rural rather than urban, and retained a strongly Indo-European feudal and tribal sociopolitical structure.
Philip II Biography
His greatest success came with the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, who elected him President in This was the first serious effort to form a labor institution for employees of the Pullman Company, which was a major employer of African Americans. The railroads had expanded dramatically in the early 20th century, and the jobs offered relatively good employment at a time of widespread racial discrimination.
Because porters were not unionized, however, most were exploited and underpaid. This was postponed after rumors circulated that Pullman had 5, replacement workers ready to take the place of BSCP members.
As a result of its perceived ineffectiveness, membership of the union dropped by half. With amendments to the Railway Labor Act inporters were granted rights under federal law.
Biographies of Philip's son, Alexander the Great, usually devote the first chapter to Philip and Macedon. A thorough and scholarly work is Ulrich Wilcken, Alexander the Great ; trans. See also The Cambridge Ancient History, vol.
Thames and Hudson, Johns Hopkins University Press, Philip II of Macedon: Philip II was king of Spain from to During his reign the Spanish Empire was severely challenged and its economic, social, and political institutions strained almost to the breaking point. But the inheritance inevitably included the host of problems which his father had left unsolved or which were incapable of being solved.
The other part of Charles's dominions, the Holy Roman Empire, was bequeathed to his brother Ferdinand, Philip's uncle. Philip was born in Valladolid on May 21,at the outset of the religious and political wars that divided Europe and drained the resources of every major European country.
France, the principal opponent of Emperor Charles's ambition, was likewise the chief rival of Philip's Spain.
The need to find money and enforce order in his territories led to Philip's clash with his Dutch subjects, a clash that produced the first war for national independence in modern European history and eventually drew Philip into the ill-fated Armada expedition. Spain's resources, including its commercial and military lifeline to northern and southern Italy, were meanwhile threatened in the Mediterranean by the Turkish fleet and the incursions of pirates, largely operating out of North African ports.
On the one side combating rebellious Protestant subjects and on the other confronting the advance of Islam, Philip II has often been depicted as the secular arm of the Catholic Church, a religious zealot who sought to erase heresy and infidelity through military conquest.
This, however, is a simplification and is misleading. He was indeed a devout Catholic and vitally concerned with the suppression of "heresy" in all the territory over which he ruled. But his policies and choices must also be viewed in the light of what he considered to be Spanish national interests. Philip's first marriage was to his cousin Maria of Portugal, who lived but 2 years, leaving a son, Don Carlos. To consolidate his empire and afford protection for his holdings in the Low Countries, Charles then married Philip to Mary Tudor of England, the Catholic queen of a basically Protestant country.
Philip's stay in England was not a happy one, and Mary died in to be succeeded by her half sister, Elizabeth.
A. Philip Randolph : biography
His ties with England broken, Philip returned to Spain via Flanders in In that year the peace treaty with France was signed. The temporary harmony between the two powers was symbolized by Philip's marriage with Elizabeth of Valois, the daughter of the king of France, who proved to be his favorite wife. Philip had succeeded his father as king of Spain in Unlike Charles V, Philip was to be a "national" monarch instead of a ruler who traveled from one kingdom to another. Though he was to travel widely throughout the Iberian Peninsula, he would never leave it again.
Personally, Philip was fair, spoke softly, and had an icy self-mastery; in the words of one of his ministers, he had a smile that cut like a sword. He immersed himself in an ocean of paperwork, studying dispatches and documents and adding marginal comments on them while scores of other documents and dispatches piled up on tables and in anterooms.
With the problems of communication in Philip's far-flung empire, once a decision was made it could not be undone. As king, he preferred to reserve all final decisions to himself; he mistrusted powerful and independent personalities and rarely reposed much confidence in aides. This personal stamp of authority during Philip's reign was in sharp contrast to the era of minister-favorites in 17th-century Spain.
His private life included a delight in art, in the cultivation of flowers, in religious reading his reign coincided with the great age of Spanish mysticismand above all in the conception and building of the Escorial, the royal palace outside Madrid whose completion was perhaps the greatest joy of his life. A combination palace, monastery, and mausoleum, the Escorial was Philip's preferred place for working. In a complex that included a place for his own tomb, naturally the thought of his successor concerned Philip greatly.
His son Don Carlos was abnormal, mentally and physically, and on no account fit to become a responsible ruler. Philip was aware that contacts had been made between his son and political enemies. He had Don Carlos arrested, and what followed is one of the great historical enigmas: Don Carlos died on July 25,under mysterious circumstances that have never been explained satisfactorily.
Did Philip have his son executed or did he die of natural causes? There is no persuasive proof on one side or the other. This incident was one of the most publicized in Philip's reign and one which naturally served to blacken his reputation. In any event, his fourth marriage, to Anne of Austria, produced five children, one of whom survived to succeed as Philip III. During the Council of Trent there was usually strong doctrinal accord between the papacy and Spanish bishops.
The King had almost total control over the Spanish Catholic Church, and although Spanish arms could advance Catholic interests, if Philip's Spain were to become supreme in Europe the Pope risked being reduced to a chaplain. One momentous occasion when they worked together came in the joint venture of Spain, the Vatican, and Venice against the Turkish navy.
At Lepanto, inthe Catholic forces devastated the enemy fleet. According to experts estimates it allowed in general to retain the economic potential of Chuvashia and to keep a significant number of jobs during the implementation of radical economic and social reforms of the s.
Implementation of The Anti-recessionary program allowed to increase the industrial output volume, redeem debts on social payments and salary.
In Anatoly Aksakov supervised the Medium-term program of social-economic developm ent of the Chuvash Republic, which specified social economic issues and ways of their solution, including development of science-intensive technology; informatization of all social economic processes; all levels of education and science; modern management and equipment of healthcare system, as well as technical, technological and institutional transformation of agriculture, social development of villages.
The program enabled the Republic without having deposits of strategic raw materials to become one of the most dynamic regions. Contributed to the release of funding for the construction and reconstruction of social infrastructure objects in Chuvashia Center of remedial treatment and rehabilitation for veterans and disabled; two sports schools; educational buildings and a dispensary for universities of Chuvashia, the annexe to the National Library, the reconstruction of the National Mu seum, Russian and Chuvash theaters, construction of perinatal and cancer centers, children's sanatorium, roads and gasification, and much more.
But the introduction of this instrument of tyranny was successfully resisted in Naples and by the Milanese; in Sicily its powers were so shackled as to render it quite a harmless institution; but these failures only stimulated him the more to establish it in all its pride and power in the Low Countries.
For a number of years it continued in vigorous action in that country; but the natural result of such a course of conduct was a formidable rebellion of all classes, Catholic and Protestant, which was partially successful - the northern portion the seven united provinces establishing its independence in In the direct male line of Portugal having become extinct, Philip laid claim to the throne, and after the Duke of Alva had occupied the kingdom with an army, the Spanish monarch's title was recognized by the Portuguese estates.
His enmity to England on account of the anti-Spanish policy of Queen Elizabeth, incited him to attempt the conquest of that country, but his most formidable attempt failed signally.
After the accession of Catharine de Medicis to power, France and Spain drew closer the bonds of amity which had previously subsisted between the two countries; but the refusal of Catharine to adopt Philip's plan for the wholesale slaughter of heretics, produced a coolness in their relations.