Floris neususs biography of donald
As Cold Feet prepares to return for a new series, we look at what the cast have been doing since the comedy drama finished in And I obtain a very simple chemigram, just a very simple one.
The window is doubly important, because to be able to invent the photograph, Talbot first used photograms to test the light sensitivity of chemicals. His discovery became a window on the world. I wonder what percentage of our understanding of the planet we live on now comes from photographs?
Your image ensures that we only see the window itself and do not see through it. Was this your intention? Photograms never allow you to see through them. In photography the gaze is guided through perspective into organised planes, in a landscape it is contained by the horizon. This is familiar and comfortable to the eye. Perspective and horizon are absent from photograms, so the space is theoretically unending. In place of visible objects like the bush outside the window, which has since disappearedour new window photogram uses blue: The window is expressed through its structure and shape including bubbles, smudges, cracks in the glass and a tiny spider.
This clear resolution of detail is an essential characteristic of the photogram.
It was recognised as early as the 19th century by natural scientists - Anna Atkins, for example - as being superior to that of lens photography in this respect.
How important is chance to your images? Is it something you have had to become comfortable with? For many artists, chance is an associate. Sometimes I invite it to join me, at other times I exclude it. To what extent do you think the digital age has affected the resurgence of interest in the camera-less photograph?
Floris Michael Neusüss
Digitalisation has helped make photography even more banal. The ubiquity of photographs and their generic appearance has probably helped revive interest in camera-less photography. One attraction of photograms is the continual freshness of the aesthetics they can create, another is the colourful effects they can feature today — for a long time, photograms could only be black and white.
I think photography no longer offers any resistance: A photogram produces a feeling of mental unease by subverting familiar visual patterns like perspective and turning the visual space on its head.
Photography works as a comfort, as Man Ray said, because it reproduces what is known.
Were there any particular circumstances in terms of history or art history that prompted Man Ray and Moholy Nagy to explore the camera-less photograph? The painter Christian Schad was the first modern artist to work with the photogram, as early as For him, in Zurich, as for the painter Man Ray in Paris inthe inspiration was the dadaist movement, which was breaking away from traditional painting techniques in favour of various processes where images were automatically generated.
When the constructivist painter Moholy-Nagy also made the discovery, inthat it was possible to paint with light instead of with pigments, it was an artistic revelation for him which was to lead to his most important group of works. It is as if the photogram has absorbed the contact with the subject being depicted and then offers it to the observer for a visual palpation. It is true that the subject resting on the photo-sensitive paper presents its reverse side to be recorded, the side that is in shadow, the shadow cast by the object itself.
This intimate physical connection inscribes into the paper, and this, if you are open to it, is the real fascination of photograms: For example, is it true that the lens of a camera creates an image that is closer to how the human eye sees? No human can see the way a photogram 'sees'. This is why I think you cannot compare a photograph with a photogram. Certainly the image a camera produces is much closer to how the human eye sees, perhaps too close even.
That's why photographs are often taken for true, when they are authentic at best. Does the way a camera-less photograph appears to the human eye provoke ideas about dreams and the subconscious? The fact that subjects in a photogram seem to float could be used by the artist to awaken those kinds of feelings. Is this something you are consciously trying to express, or is it common to all camera-less photography? When you make a photogram from a solid object there are nearly always points of contact, and an impression of physical closeness can often be transmitted through these, especially with the female nudes of course.
The poetic unease comes from the tension between the fact that the figure is so near that you feel it is touching you, and the fact that it is so highly abstracted that it seems unattainably distant. Life, relationships, reading, practical work, chance and accidents all suggest themes. Every work series has been triggered by something different. I said no, but I would like to make photograms of them. That aroused his curiosity and he allowed us access to the museum by night.
We worked there for nearly four years. That was the beginning of our long and on-going preoccupation with the phenomenon of the museum. Today museums specialise in natural history, anthropology, science and technology, etc.
We make photograms of exhibits in different museums and find new contexts for the images we create. So we might put a photogram of a kouros an ancient Greek statue of a young man opposite one of a big fish: Or we put a photogram of a sphinx with a curled tail that looks like an infinity sign with photograms suggesting space and time: We worked for years to bring out both negative and positive forms in an image at once. But the work is getting harder and harder to do: Other practitioners in the exhibition have captured fleeting things like ripples on water, butterflies etc.
You have gone for solid objects. Can you tell me why? In a photogram any movement of the object is frozen by the flash of light. This window will not hang on a wall but stand in free space. It is not important that people know how we made a photogram but someone who knows may have an additional kick. We learn something new with every operation we try. We lit the three sections of the picture one after the other. Once the paper was positioned correctly behind the window inside in the house, I would operate the light, 16 metres away out in the park.
We communicated by walkie talkie to co-ordinate what we were doing. Nor was it affected by the cars that would sometimes whizz past in the distance with their headlights shining, though we shrieked with terror every time it happened. Martin Barnes had found out that Richard owned the only accessible developing machine for our Ilfochrome Classic photo paper in the whole of England. Before we exposed the big photogram we had to do test versions to get the exposure time right.
Those tests had to be developed, and the big photogram had to be developed using the same machine to get the expected results. Without him we might have been throwing all our ideas into a void: The translation of this interview was generously provided by the London Goethe Institute. These sculpture photograms speak of artists' enduring fascination with animate bodily forms and how they can be transformed into idealised inanimate imaginings.
The image shown here was created by placing photographic paper in a garden at night during a thunderstorm, and letting lightning expose the paper.
This window at Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire, was the subject of the very first photographic negative, made by William Henry Fox Talbot in The resulting photogram recreates the subject of Talbot's original small negative, but life size. This version of the window photograph was commissioned for the 'Shadow Catchers: If we look at art and I do look at art there is art that speaks to me and art that does not speak to me.
First of all one has to be interested visually, and then with a lot of art nowdays, you need to know the background. The house here is now a museum and it says such a lot about Fox Talbot's life and if you look around today you can understand everything he himself developed and tried out. You really could believe that Talbot had just been working here. An important aspect of my work was more conditioned by the medium itself: I carried the photogram out of the laboratory, that is out of the studio, and took it to the objects. And the very first photo I made outside the studio, the first photogram, was of this window.
I don't particularly consider myself to be a pioneer, I use this technique because I find it to be a medium that is suitable for purpose, and because, and this is the important thing, I am interested in what they used to do with this technique before my time, which is why we are sitting here today. A very important aspect of a photogram is this contact, how do I put it…a photogram is not a reproduced print, it is a contact picture.
You sense that the object was originally in contact with the picture. The question is, and this possible with photograms, how to get away from the purely documentary aspect and make a picture of the window about the window.
Pierre Cordier born Brussels, Belgium, discovered the 'chemigram' process in Over many years, he has explored the potential of the chemigram like an experimental scientist. Working more like a painter or printmaker than a photographer, Cordier replaces the canvas or printing plate with photographic paper.
Victoria and Albert Museum
He applies photographic developer to the paper to create dark areas and fixer for lighter tones. Further changes to shape and pattern are made by 'localising' products such as varnish, wax, glue, oil, egg and syrup. These protect the surface of the photographic emulsion or can be incised to create a drawing, graphic motif or written text. Entrancing chemical and physical reactions can then be made by repeatedly dipping the paper in photographic developer and fixer.
This method allows him to create images impossible to realise by any other means.
The process has become the artwork and his style is his technique. Cordier has described his works as a mutation, as hybrid and marginal - fake photographs of an imaginary, improbable and inaccessible world. Whatever you do, don't divulge it! This piece is among Cordier's earliest works and combines the two forms of experimental photography: Fittingly, its cosmic yet small-scale appearance signals a new beginning, like a nucleus of energy before the Big Bang. The simplest form of chemigram involves the application of photographic developer and fixer to gelatin-silver photographic paper, using the chemicals like watercolours.
Developer creates dark areas, while fixer produces lighter tones. Cordier used this method here, pouring rather than brushing the chemicals on to a lightly oiled sheet of photographic paper. Paul Klee's painting Ad Marginem shows prehistoric-looking creatures and foliage surrounding a solar motif. Cordier recasts Klee's painting diagrammatically, transforming the solar disc into a triangle and retaining the original placement of forms but as if in an alien code.
Cordier's fondness for labyrinthine patterns, this time in the form of words, is shown in this reference to the Argentinian writer, poet and philosopher Jorge Luis Borges. It is composed of letter forms that spell out Borges's poem 'La Suma'. The letters, however, are almost impossible to decipher, their shapes joining together as paths forking in different directions. Cordier is seen here in his Brussels studio.
Working more like a painter or printmaker than a photographer, he replaces the canvas or printing plate with photographic paper. Using photographic chemicals - as well as varnish, wax, glue, oil, egg and syrup - he creates enigmatic images that are impossible to realize by any other means. In Cordier's work, the process itself becomes the artwork and his style is his technique.
I made my first chemigram during military service in Germany, near to Cologne. I had met a German girl called Erica. I wanted to make her a birthday card. Then I thought I would do a black background, then I put it in the developing solution, and then I watched as the nail varnish moved and changed form and then I put it in the fixing solution and there was my first Chemigram.
And then I put some Liege syrup on the paper, and then I dip it in the developer and fixer. And I obtain a very simple chemigram, just a very simple one. I am very happy that other people do chemigrams, absolutely, and that there are many around the world who do them. I put some distance between myself and the notion of photography, hoping to be welcomed within the world of painting, because in fact I am neither a painter nor a photographer, but a bit of both. Garry Fabian Miller, photographer. In Garry Fabian Miller born Bristol, England, discovered a method of using a photographic enlarger that allowed a direct translation between plants and the photographic print.
Later, inhe turned to making abstract images in the darkroom, using only glass vessels filled with liquids, or cut-paper forms to cast shadows and filter light. Many of his works explore the cycle of time over a day, month or year, through controlled experiments with varying durations of light exposure.
His works are enriched by being seen in sequences that explore and develop a single motif and colour-range. Often, the images are conceived as remembered landscapes and natural light phenomena. At the heart of Fabian Miller's vision is a belief in the contemplative existence of the artist, whose practice and life outside metropolitan culture are intertwined. The works he creates are simple, yet multi-layered - tranquil yet energised.
In photography as in photosynthesis, light plays a fundamental role in creation. This work was made using beech leaves gathered from late April to early June in the artist's garden on Dartmoor. Each vertical line was printed on one day, with the time period increasing incrementally from one day between the first lines to around two weeks in the later stages. Fabian Miller's work also recalls Turner's deathbed attempts to observe the light through his window and the latticed window of Lacock Abbey in Fox Talbot's first photographic negative of I am seeking a state of mind which lifts the spirit, gives strength and a moment of clarity.
For the series Year One, Fabian Miller produced one work every day over the course of a year. At the end, he selected ninety-six of the images for a book. The result is a sustained investigation into form and colour alongside the cycle of time. Garry Fabian Miller creates glowing abstract photographs by casting shadows, or blocking and filtering light on photographic paper in the darkroom.
He often walks on Dartmoor for inspiration, the location of his home and studio in south-west England. This film shows the dramatic landscape and the artist at work, discussing the symbolism of his powerful imagery.