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Red-highlighted regions represent data used to calculate average flow rate at each corresponding pressure step. Baseball The one sport that Latinos have developed a long tradition of participation and athletic achievement is baseball. But I have much second-hand knowledge.
Even though colleges and universities began to comply with Title IX in to create gender equity in sport, Latinas have remained underrepresented in collegiate sports.
Born in in New York City to a Cuban father and Puerto Rican mother, Fernandez began playing softball at an early age and during high school in Lakewood, California.
After graduation, she enrolled at University of California Los Angeles where she led the Bruins softball team to two national championships. She also led the USA softball team to win three gold medals in the, and Olympic Games. Her stellar pitching and hitting at the Olympic Games helped promote women's softball around the world. Inthe Lakewood City Council recognized Fernandez's athletic achievements by naming the softball field at Mayfair Park in her honor. Beyond softball, Latina athletes have also participated in baseball, basketball, tennis, golf, soccer and boxing.
After pitching for the Chicago Colleens, she moved around with several teams until settling with the Fort Wayne Daises. Isabel had difficulty learning the English language, but the presence and companionship of other Cuban teammates eased her loneliness and homesickness. Latinas have been playing basketball since the s. However it was not until that Rebecca Lobo became the first Latina basketball star.
To raise funds for uniforms and travel expenses, basketball teams held dances at the Westside Recreation Center or at Sidney Lanier High School. Latinas have also been part of the growth of women's soccer in the U. When Mexico was unable to produce enough players for their national team they recruited Mexican American players from the U.
Gerardo is one of many U. While boxing has long been considered a "manly" sport, women have recently entered the sport due in part to the popularity of Hollywood films like the Oscar-winning Million Dollar Baby and Girlfight Several working-class Latina boxers photographed and profiled in Women Boxers: The New Warriors revealed the different racial, class, and gender barriers they faced entering the boxing ring.
Some photographs show these women in extreme physical training and others show them as loving mothers embracing their children. These photos reveal how these women are constructing new notions of femininity. A few Latinas testified about how they were introduced to boxing by their fathers and brothers.
Role of nitric oxide in murine conventional outflow physiology
This shows how boxing has long been a Latino family tradition. The question remains whether female boxing will be more than a sexualized spectacle for male spectators and be taken more seriously by those who control the sport, mainly male boxing promoters and media officials. With the support of her father and coach, Esparza earned a spot on the Olympic team. She has made gre at sacrifices to train for a sport with little financial backing. Her strong determination and dedication paid off recently when she won a bronze medal in the Olympic Games in London. InLatinos surpassed African Americans as the largest minority group in the U.
Given the obvious importance of athletics in American life and the increasing Latino population in the U. For teams, leagues, and networks, this means a marketing opportunity to expand their fan base and tap into a growing consumer market. For the various reasons discussed above, Latino and Latina athletes have taken non-traditional routes towards participation in professional and non-professional sports in the U.
For Latinos and Latinas who did not complete high school or college, the world of sport became a vehicle for social advancement. A great majority began playing sports in the streets, sandlots, public courts, or municipal recreation centers, or while working as caddies in country club golf courses. These "back doors" of entry have shaped the nature of Latino and Latina sporting experience in the U. Furthermore, sport participation is a central component of Latino and Latina experiences in the U. Sport participation has not always been easy; it has depended on a number of factors including social location, economic constraints, educational level, and scientific discourses about physical ability, as well as gender ideologies and the underlying racial structure of U.
Despite these multiple barriers, Latino and Latina athletes have made significant achievements in American sports, but these have not been individual accomplishments. Sport is too often centered on the "greatest moments," "star athletes," and spectacular feats performed in "big stadiums," and as a result individual achievements are divorced from the collective support of coaches, fans, promoters, community organizations, and neighborhoods.
Unlike professional sporting events driven by big money franchises and television broadcast deals, amateur-level sports are more "unscripted" and can be more easily appropriated for social and political causes that benefit the larger community. Athletic success for Latinos has led to more educational opportunities and ultimately to successful professional careers in business, education, and politics.
Latino and Latina athletes have also acted on their social conscience to defend and advance the interests of their communities. His research focuses on ways in which Mexican immigrants and Mexican Americans have used culture, politics, sports, and forms of leisure to build community solidarity, construct gender and ethnic identities, and forge inter-ethnic relations with other groups in order to advance politically and economically. His major works include Latinos in U. He received his Ph. La Colonia Holding a Full House.
Fitness Information Technology, ; Ian C. University of Minnesota Press, Athletic Talent Migration in an Interdependent Worlded.
John Bale and Joseph Maguire Portland: Cass, Oxford University Press, Alamillo, Making Lemonade out of Lemons: University of Illinois Press, Regalado, Mexican Americans and Sports: Alamillo "Playing Across Borders: An Equestrian Folk Tradition Tucson: Yale University Press, Baxter, "Sport on the Rio Grande: University of Nebraska Press, Identity, Nationality and Culture Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, Baseball, Latinos, and the Color Line Berkeley: University of California Press, University of Illinois Press, Hill and Wang, Alamillo, ""Mexican American Baseball: Race, Recreation and Cultureed.
New York University Press, Bilingual Press,XV. Hemispheric Sport as Border Studies" Americana 5, n. New York University Press, Community and Cultural Diversity in Contemporary Americaed.
University of Texas Press, Ralph Wilcox et al. State University of New York Press, Soccer and the Latino Community in Richmond, California. My first encounter with the Negro was in Louisville, Kentucky, where I went to dinner at a hotel and happened to look into the kitchen where a colored man was preparing the food. At the sight of this black face, offset with those terrible white whites of the eye, I was unable to eat my dinner, and so I left the table and went to my room.
When I was small we lived next to a farm cultivated by a Turk, and as we rode past his house he would throw rocks at us and make lots of noise. His face had a look of cruelty, and as I remember it now I can imagine his doing some of the things I read that they do in Turkey.
When I was about eight years old I went for a hike in the hills and on returning I had to pass through' some Chinese vege. When I came along he jumped out and grabbed at me, but I started running with him running close after me. He yelled something at me in Chinese.
Finally I reached home, but ever after that I have been much afraid of Chinamen. The illustrations of disgust as a type of sensory impressions leading to race antipathy are numerous. Frequently disgust and fear, as in Case 15, are aroused together.
In Case 14 the emotion of disgust has been thought about until it has become almost a definitely organized sentiment. I spent several weeks at a summer resort in Michigan where there were many wealthy Jews, who made a great display of their wealth, wore a great amount of flashy jewelry and expensive clothes and yet they were most penurious when paying for board, lodging, or souvenirs.
These experiences gave me the impression that Jews are greedy, miserly, selfish, egotistical, fond of display, because the individuals I came in contact with had these characteristics. When I was five my parents brought me to California and I entered a school where I was forced to meet Armenians continually.
In high school one-fourth to one-third, were Armenians. No one desired to sit in class beside a repulsive-looking, vile-smelling, and yet insolent Armenian. Continual feuds kept the school in a seething tumult. To one who liked good old Anglo-Saxon names, the varous of the Armenian ian was repulsive.
It is almost tragic to see a beautiful old home, now ill-kept and swarming with a truly Rooseveltian family of Armenians. During the time I lived in Fresno I saw nothing in the Armenian to make him endurable. Industry and the ability to out-Jew a Greek are his only useful characteristics.
As I saw him, he is filthy, stingy, insolent, forward, and unattractive physically, mentally, and morally. Oppressed in Eurasia, the Armenian swells with unnatural expansion when, here in America, the oppression is no longer felt. Although one of the oldest and outstanding Christian nations of the world, she has poisoned the body and mind of a generation of Chinese through the opium traffic. She is continuing this treachery with greater effort. This is unthinkable; that a God-fearing, out-and-out Christian nation is peddling a drug of that nature in this day and age.
I cannot tolerate hypocrisy in any individual; then should I tolerate a nation as such? Decent society outlaws dope peddlers; therefore decent civilization in like manner should outlaw nations as such.
When I was about twelve years old I went to Mexico with my father. It was about the time the United States was having trouble with Mexico Some Mexican soldiers were passing by; my father was looking in another direction; one of the Mexican men standing near tried to grab me.
Probably he wanted ransom. He was so disgusting. He was such a coward and sneak and ever afterward I disliked all Mexicans. It seems to me that they will do almost anything when your back is turned. Unpleasant race impressions experienced in adulthood are also common.
As a, rule these anti-racial attitudes represent a generalization of experiences with one or a few individuals of the given race. Although there may be a recognition that the given experiences have been related to the less socially developed members of, the race in question or from non-typical individuals the aversion is likely to spread to the whole race.
Again, fear and disgust prevail. While working with a Mexican you have to watch him, that is, if you have anything he is liable to want. At one time a Mexican worked for us several months. He was friendly and a conscientious worker. When the work was over the Mexican left with no feeling on either side. The next night he came back and stole my best saddle. I got the saddle back but it did not increase my love for a Mexican. The sections were then incubated with Alexa goat anti-rat and Alexa goat anti-rabbit secondary antibodies Life Technologies, Burlington, ON, Canada diluted 1: Differences in outflow facility between treated and untreated eyes were examined with the linear mixed model using commercial statistical software SPSS, IBM following previous methods 9.
The linear mixed model accounts for correlated errors between paired eyes from individual mice, while allowing for unpaired eyes that arise when the contralateral eye fails to meet the stability criteria.
Importantly, this suggests that lighting conditions must be carefully controlled during SNAP perfusion experiments.
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Data are from 1 experiment but are representative of 3 individual experiments. Time 0 corresponds to the end of the initial min period, during which SNAP stock solution was exposed to high-intensity light and after which NO release was measured in the working solution by the probe. Outflow facility was estimated on the basis of the slope on the linear regression through the data points, as described by Eq.
Note different vertical axis scales in A and B. Outflow facility is estimated on the basis of the slope on the linear regression through the data points, as described by Eq.
Error bars represent SD. To confirm and localize expression of the eNOS transgene within the conventional outflow pathway, eyes from eNOS-GFPtg mice were enucleated and processed for immunofluorescence microscopy. In the conventional outflow pathway Fig. The outflow facility-increasing effect of various NO donors was first demonstrated in living monkeys 3263 and, subsequently, in living rabbits 38 and in eyes obtained postmortem from pigs 2122 and humans This suggests a common outflow facility response to exogenous NO across several species that can be examined in mice as a model system that resembles the functional anatomy 51 and pharmacology 8 of the human outflow pathway.
Precisely how NO affects outflow facility and IOP remains unclear but likely involves mechanisms related to cellular contractility or endothelial permeability. NO is a free radical gas that can rapidly diffuse across cell membranes to affect the biological activity of several proteins and enzymes.
For instance, sGC mediates the vasodilatory effect of NO on smooth muscle cells in the cardiovascular system, and sGC is necessary for the increase in outflow facility following exogenous NO in ex vivo pig eyes Deficiencies in sGC signaling contribute to ocular hypertension and glaucomatous optic neuropathy in mice Similarly, NO induces relaxation of TM cells 20 and decreases TM 19 and SC 23 cell volume to potentially affect the dimensions of inner wall pores or flow pathways in the juxtacanalicular tissue.
Alternatively, NO mediates the disruption of adherens junctions to increase permeability of vascular endothelia 1318 and, thereby, may disrupt the adherens junctions along the inner wall of SC 31 to increase outflow facility. Downstream of SC, NO may induce relaxation of smooth muscle cells that surround the collector channels 17 to increase intrascleral vessel diameter and, therefore, may influence posttrabecular or distal outflow resistance downstream of SC NO also induces relaxation of the ciliary muscle 62628 This effect should be more pronounced in primates 575872 and mice 51which have a ciliary muscle with more extensive tendinous connections to the juxtacanalicular tissue and inner wall endothelium of SC than other species such as pigs 4 NO may also affect other aspects of aqueous humor dynamics; for example, NO donors may decrease aqueous humor inflow 66increase episcleral venous pressure 77and affect choroidal blood volume Thus there are numerous potential mechanisms by which NO may affect aqueous humor dynamics, and, depending on the site of NO activity and the species being examined, NO may either increase or decrease IOP.
While the downstream mechanisms by which NO regulates IOP are certainly important, the current study focused upstream on the role of NOS enzymes and how production of endogenous NO may be involved in the physiological regulation of outflow facility. Endogenous NO is produced in vivo by a family of NOS enzymes encoded by three genes and their splice variants, including the calcium-dependent eNOS and nNOS, which are constitutively expressed in endothelial cells and nitrergic neurons, respectively, and the calcium-independent iNOS, which is expressed predominantly in macrophages.
Downstream of the TM, nNOS-labeled nerve fibers and terminals surround episcleral veins in mice 51 and arteriovenous anastomoses within the intrascleral vessel network in primates In primates, the longitudinal ciliary muscle fibers are enriched in eNOS 48 and insert directly into the juxtacanalicular region 57 Thus all three NOS isoforms, and likely their splice variants, are present throughout the trabecular, posttrabecular, and ciliary muscle regions, suggesting multiple locations where NOS activity may influence outflow physiology.
To examine the physiological role of endogenous NO in aqueous humor dynamics, we perfused enucleated mouse eyes with inhibitors of NOS enzymes and measured conventional outflow facility.
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By examining enucleated eyes, one can measure outflow facility independently of NO-mediated effects on inflow, episcleral venous pressure, or unconventional outflow, since such effects are very likely eliminated in enucleated eyes and would otherwise confound measurements in vivo. This assumes that the outflow facility is unaffected by postmortem changes and that the NO signaling pathways are preserved ex vivo. In support of the ex vivo model, Millar and colleagues 46 showed that the outflow facility measured in vivo is not significantly different from that measured immediately after death in the same mice prior to enucleation.
Furthermore, the pharmacological outflow facility response measured in enucleated mouse eyes mimics the response previously observed in enucleated human eyes to several receptor-mediated compounds, including sphingosine 1-phosphate 871prostaglandin EP 4 agonist 847and pilocarpine 5 It is puzzling why higher concentrations of l -NAME had no detectable effect on outflow facility; one possibility is that differential NOS inhibition between different tissues of the outflow pathway may, in some cases, exert opposing effects on outflow facility.
For example, one may speculate that the higher concentration of l -NAME is more available to the ciliary muscle, where NO-mediated ciliary muscle relaxation may tend to oppose the increase in outflow facility caused by NO action within the TM see above. Alternatively, l -NAME may act as a muscarinic antagonist 11affecting the M 2 and M 3 receptors within the ciliary body and iris sphincter of humans 27 If a similar receptor profile is present in mice, then l -NAME could presumably act directly on muscarinic receptors to modulate ciliary muscle contractility, which affects outflow facility in mice 42 Regardless of the underlying mechanism, the literature is inconsistent on how l -NAME affects aqueous humor dynamics.
More studies are necessary to better understand how NOS inhibition by l -NAME influences aqueous humor dynamics and, in particular, outflow facility. Despite the potential role of other NOS isoforms, eNOS appears to be particularly important for the physiological regulation of outflow facility. This demonstrates that the outflow facility-increasing effect of NO becomes saturated under conditions of elevated eNOS expression. Similarly, Stamer et al. This is consistent with the hypothesis that NO production by eNOS contributes to the normal physiological regulation of outflow facility in mice.
Disruption of normal eNOS activity, as may occur in some cases of glaucoma 344354may therefore contribute to the pathogenesis of ocular hypertension associated with the disease.
In contrast, Stamer et al. Two important differences may contribute to this discrepancy between the present study and that of Stamer et al. Environmental factors such as temperature and hydration likely influence the measurement of outflow facility 9 and, thus, may have contributed to differences in baseline outflow facility between the current study and prior studies. Instead, WT mice used in the current study, despite being from the same background strain, were obtained from a separate colony, which may have exhibited a baseline outflow facility different from that of the transgenic colony.
For these reasons, the current experiments were not designed to detect differences in baseline outflow facility between WT and eNOS-GFPtg mice but, rather, to examine the effect of NO donors or NOS inhibitors between paired eyes of a given cohort. The mechanism by which eNOS regulates outflow facility remains to be determined. However, expression of the eNOS-GFP transgene in the conventional outflow pathway was localized to the endothelium of SC and the intrascleral vessels, with no apparent expression within the TM.
This strongly suggests that NO release by endothelial cells within SC or intrascleral vessels influences outflow facility. Furthermore, because NO production by eNOS is shear-sensitive 1314 and because the shear stress acting on the inner wall reaches levels known to activate eNOS in vascular endothelia 24it is possible that SC cells produce NO in response to circumferential flow within SC.
In fact, recent studies have demonstrated shear-induced NO production by human SC cells 2 and porcine angular aqueous plexus cells the porcine equivalent of SC cells This presents the possibility that eNOS may act as part of an endogenous feedback loop to regulate IOP and offset any potential changes in outflow resistance within the TM.