Sima qian biography examples
There is scant biographical record of Sima Qian, although the historian does provide autobiographical insight in his private magnum opus, the Shi Ji 'Historical Records' also known by variants , a history of the world known to China. Opioid emergency 'national shame' The directive falls short of Mr Trump's pledge to declare a national emergency, freeing more federal funds. Sima Qian shed tears and answered:
Book of History embodies Sima Qian's progressive concept of history and judicial criticism of social reality, reflected in four aspects: Records of the Grand Historian is not only a faithful documenting of history but also possesses high literary value.
Its artistry is mainly reflected in the skillful characterization of many distinctive characters based on true historical materials. In their portrayals, Sima Qian made great efforts in uniting history, characters and themes, and consequently both history and characters are vividly depicted. Sima Qian is also good at illustrating someone's character by placing him in a sharp confrontation and letting his words and deeds speak for him. The narration in Records of the Grand Historian is concise and vivid. The descriptive dramatic scenes further enhance the work's appeal.
Instead of following the style of pian wen, with its lavish parallelism and ornate language, Sima Qian formed his own simple, concise, fluent and easy-to-read style. The language used in Records of the Grand Historian is informal, humorous and full of variations; therefore it has always been esteemed as the highest achievement of classical Chinese writing. COM Mildchina with many years of history in China tourism industry professionally provides the services of Hangzhou and Shanghai private tours, and also offers the tour guides and car service.
More Accesses to Mildchina: As the top travel expert for designing great East China Tours, Mildchina at your service. Family Background of Sima Qian. Sima Qian included it all, but in five separate sections. While this may be a thorough method, it also means that the reader must read many sections to learn the whole story of a given individual.
Sima Qian: China's 'grand historian'
In a trivial example, it's about like looking on this site for information on Sima Qian. You'd need to consult the related pages on Confucius, the first emperorthe Chinese dynasties pages and the Chinese timelines pages, and also read the interpretive information on Taoist, Legalist, and Confucian systems. There's a reason for doing it that way, but you might prefer to have it all in digested, compact form.
If so, Sima Qian's Shi Ji is not the history for you. Sima Qian concentrated on earlier regimes because he was not particularly happy with the regime under which he lived. He feared his monarch, Emperor Wu. I felt sick at heart to see it," writes Sima Qian in a letter to a friend afterwards. The general had committed treason by surrendering. And Sima Qian had committed treason by defending him.
There is an interrogation. Sima Qian tells his friend his body is not made of wood or stone. At the end he is offered an unenviable choice - death or castration.
To his contemporaries, death was the only honourable option but Sima Qian had a bigger audience in mind than the Chinese court of the 1st Century BC.
He was writing a history of humanity for posterity. Sima Qian's father had been court historian before him and had started the project. On his sickbed, with both of them in tears, the father extracted from the son a promise to complete the epic work. That death may be as weighty as Mount Tai or it may be as light as a goose feather. It all depends on the way he uses it. But neither in the letter nor in his autobiography can Sima Qian bring himself to describe the horror of castration.
He talks instead of going down to the "silkworm chamber". It was already well known that a castrated man could easily die from blood loss or infection so after mutilation the victims were kept like silkworms in a warm, draught-free room.
Every time I think of this shame I find myself drenched in sweat. Columbia University Press, repr.
HarperCollins CollegePublishers, pp. The Grand Historian was responsible both for establishing and maintaining the royal calendar the method of numbering the years of the dynasty and for composing a record of the principal events of the reign.
Thus Ssuma Ch'ien had trained as an astronomer as well as a historian and he was responsible for an important reorganization of the Chinese calendar. His Records of the Grand Historian went far beyond the conventional listing of court appointments and events in the life of the imperial family.
Ssuma Ch'ien believed that with the accession of the Emperor Wu Ti, the Han dynasty had reached its apex and he decided to write a history of of the dynasty as a whole. He divided his work into a chronology, a description of Han government, and a long biographical section in which the lives and deeds of great men were recorded. Ssu-ma Ch'ien believed that history was a didactic suhject, that it should teach lessons and reveal the values of the society being remembered.Sima Qian, China's Grand Historian
This method is clearly seen in his biographical sketches, like those of Pu Shih and Chi An, which follow. The emperor, impressed by the words of a man named Pu Shih, summoned him to court and made him a palace attendant, giving him the honarray rank of tso-shu-ch'ang and presenting him with ten ch 'ing of land. These rewards were announced throughout the empire so that everyone might know of Pu Shih's example.
Pu Shih was a native of Honan, where his family made a living by farming and animal raising. When his parents dies, Pu Shih left home handing over the house, the lands, and all the family wealth to his younger brother, who by this time was full grown.
For his own share he took only a hundred or so of the sheep they had been raising, which he led off into the mountains to pasture. In the course of ten years or so, Pu Shih's sheep had increased to over a thousand and he had bought his own house and fields.
His younger brother in the meantime had failed completely in the management of the farm, but Pu Shih promptly handed over to him a share of his own wealth.
This happened several times. Just at that time the Han was sending its generals at frequent intervals to attack the Hsiung-nu. Pu Shih journeyed to the capital and submitted a letter to the throne, offering to turn over half of his wealth to the district officials to help in the defense of the border.
The emperor dispatched an envoy to ask if Pu Shih wanted a post in the government. I have had no experielzce at government service and would certainly not want such a position. But Pu Shih answered, "I have never in my life had a quarrel with anyone. If there are poor men in my village, I lend them what they need, and if there are men who do not behave properly, I guide and counsel them. Where I live, everyone does as I say.
Why should I suffer any injustice from others? There is nothing I want to report!
Pu Shih replied, "The Son. In my humble opinion, every worthy man should be willing to frght to the death to defend the borders, and every person with wealth ought to contribute to the expense.