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Governor general of australia biography of donald

governor general of australia biography of donald
In the ensuing election campaign , the Australian Labor Party's focus was predominantly on the asserted illegitimacy of the dismissal with the slogan of "Shame Fraser, Shame" , while the Coalition focused on criticism of Labor's economic management. On other occasions Royal Assent has been given elsewhere. The convention gradually became established throughout the Commonwealth that the Governor-General is a citizen of the country concerned, and is appointed on the advice of the government of that country.

Born in Brisbane of a father who was a one-time jackeroo and property manager, and a mother whose uncle was a Premier of Queensland, Richard Casey — grew up in Melbourne in relative affluence. Casey graduated as a mechanical engineer before serving at Gallipoli and on the Western Front. After a brief stint as a member of Parliament, Casey was appointed Australian minister to the United States of America, where he showed great flair for diplomacy.

A year later, Churchill appointed him governor of Bengal, India. Inhe won a seat in the Australian Parliament and was granted the external affairs portfolio — 'constantly preaching the importance of Asia to an Australia which had taken little interest in it'. Casey was also interested in the Antarctic and, inplayed a leading part in negotiating a treaty covering co-operation in exploration and scientific research.

Casey was described as 'the last of the Edwardian gentlemen', the first Australian to be appointed as Governor—General by a non-Labor government.

governor general of australia biography of donald

As Governor-General, Sir William spoke out on his desire to see meaningful reconciliation between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians.

As Governor-General, I must be conscious of the need to avoid becoming involved in divisive or party political debate. It is, however, permissible for me to make a plea to the Aboriginal peoples to recognise the progress that has been made in recent years InSir William Deane was awarded the Sydney Peace Prize 'for his consistent support of vulnerable and disadvantaged Australians and his strong commitment to the cause of reconciliation. It is doubtful that any national leader has spoken more eloquently about Anzac and Australia's military history while at the same time linking them to our multicultural diversity and our bonds with Aboriginal people.

Hugh Dillon, review of 'Sir William Deane: As the first woman to take up the office, she remains a pioneer in contemporary Australian society. Her contribution to advancing human rights and equality, the rights of women and children and the welfare of the family was recognised in her appointment as an Officer of the Order of Australia inand as a Companion of the Order of Australia in Jump to navigation Skip to main content.

Parts of this site may not work properly because you are using an outdated browser. This allowed Lang to seek Game's dismissal if he dared, which he did not.

On the morning of Tuesday, 11 November, Whitlam phoned Kerr and arranged to see him at Kerr also arranged for Fraser to come "a quarter of an hour later. Mr Fraser was not told why I wanted him to come. Fraser recalled answering "yes" to all these questions. In his memoirs Kerr denied making such a phone call to Fraser, but Fraser was adamant in all subsequent accounts that he did. The House of Representatives was suspended at Fraser had arrived earlier and been shown into another room. Kerr knew that Whitlam intended to ask for a half-Senate election, one which would need to be conducted without supply, [2]: So, after reconfirming that Whitlam's intention was to govern without parliamentary supply, Kerr withdrew his commission and served on him the letter of dismissal.

At a press conference that afternoon he said "The Governor-General prevented me getting in touch with the Queen by just withdrawing the commission immediately" [2]: When Whitlam had left, Kerr summoned Fraser [2]: When Fraser answered affirmatively, Kerr then commissioned him as Prime Minister.

governor general of australia biography of donald

Kerr later put forward five propositions to justify his actions: Kerr later stated that Whitlam represented "something that perhaps I might have been, had I stayed in the party as he did", [17] and it has been suggested that the Dismissal was "as much a case of a thwarted ego seeking his place in history as Whitlam's mismanagement of the economy". The news that Whitlam had been dismissed spread across Australia during the afternoon, resulting in angry protest demonstrations by his supporters.


Over the following month, leading to the double dissolution election scheduled for 13 DecemberWhitlam and ALP supporters constantly and intensely denigrated Kerr, no doubt in the belief that the electorate would prove sympathetic to the deposed Labor government.

In the ensuing election campaignthe Australian Labor Party's focus was predominantly on the asserted illegitimacy of the dismissal with the slogan of "Shame Fraser, Shame"while the Coalition focused on criticism of Labor's economic management. Some expected a major backlash against Fraser in favour of Whitlam who had launched his campaign by calling upon his supporters to "maintain your rage"based on opinion polls in October and early November which had shown disapproval of Fraser's tactics.

Once the election was called, however, the majority focused on the economy and responded to the Liberals' slogan "Turn on the lights". Despite the passion of die-hard Labor supporters, furious at what they saw as an establishment plot to destroy a Labor government, Labor suffered its greatest-ever loss 7. Labor supporters continued to voice criticism and demonstrate against Kerr. He found the personal attacks on him and his wife whom Whitlam and others accused of having been a sinister influence deeply wounding.

For the rest of his term as Governor-General, Kerr was rarely able to appear in public without encountering angry demonstrations. Labor parliamentarians, federal and state, refused to accept his legitimacy as Governor-General, shunning official functions where he was in attendance.

governor general of australia biography of donald

Near the end of his term, he famously appeared drunk when he presented the Melbourne Cup. Concern about his health may have been one reason why he cut short his five-year term and stood down in December In fact, his resignation had already been proposed as early as Marchduring the Queen's visit.

His revelation of the childhood secret that lay at the heart of many of his later frustrations, disappointments and vulnerabilities, is an exceptionally moving contribution to our understanding of the human condition.

He was interviewed for Film Australia's Australian Biography series in As an educator and a gallery director, her vision was to make people see art as accessible and relevant. Despite feeling disadvantaged since childhood because she was a girl, Betty has been a role model for women: She was also a talented young artist herself but gave up painting when she had children. In this interview, Betty talks of art, family and career and the determination that has driven her to achieve. Diane Cilento Actor Diane Cilento achieved international acclaim as a stage and screen actor in the s and 60s, hitting the heights of celebrity during her marriage to James Bond star, Sean Connery.

But she decided to turn her back on fame to follow, instead, a spiritual path. She has since gained a reputation as a "new age guru" - and has achieved a sense of personal fulfilment that was lacking. Now running a theatre on her far north Queensland property, Diane reflects on a life lived to the full.

Inga Clendinnen Academic and Writer Inga Clendinnen is a writer, academic and historian whose work on Aztec and Mayan cultures and the Holocaust has been praised around the world. Recently, she has also turned her attention to the historical relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. In this interview, Inga speaks eloquently about the importance of studying history, her desire to understand how people think and the need to embrace difference, both individual and cultural.

She also looks back at her own life with the same candour and perceptiveness for which she is renowned. H C "Nugget" Coombs Economist "Nugget" Coombs was one of Australia's most outstanding and influential public servants, serving and advising seven prime ministers over a year period. Coombs had a profound influence behind the scenes in business and politics and worked hard to achieve a distinctive social, economic and cultural place for all Australians, particularly Aboriginal Australians. A series of factory jobs after leaving school introduced her to the harsh inequities of women's working lives.

Joining the Communist Party, she worked as a dental nurse, devoting 15 years to union activism on behalf of hospital workers.

In she went to work for the Meatworkers' Union, just as the meat industry was being used as a test case for equal pay for women workers. When the case failed, D'Aprano took direct action, chaining herself to the doors of the Arbitration Court. Bruce Dawe Poet This encounter with highly regarded Australian poet Bruce Dawe allows us an insight into the motivation and methods of a very fine writer. His ability to express the drama and beauty of everyday life has made his work readily accessible to the general public. Smoky and his horse Flash were legendary.

An entire generation of young Australians grew up listening to his radio show and abiding by his "code of the west".

governor general of australia biography of donald

Through her television and radio documentaries, books and articles, and her membership of numerous boards and organisations, she has illuminated social issues and influenced policy in areas from poverty and aging to child abuse and disability. She is perhaps best known for her work on mental illness - an area she became involved in after her son developed schizophrenia. In this interview, she recounts many of the challenges she has faced, particularly as a young "career woman" in s Australia.

Elizabeth Durack Artist In the art world was shocked by the announcement from Western Australian artist Elizabeth Durack that she and Aboriginal artist, Eddie Burrup, were one and the same person. Durack's astonishing life forces us to question not only the nature of Aboriginality, but also of identity itself. He was to hold office for over seven years. In recent years, Fraser has been co-chairman of the Commonwealth Group of Eminent Persons, which worked toward democracy in South Africa.

Margaret Fulton Cookery Writer Margaret Fulton was the first and greatest of the Australian celebrity cookery writers. Through her magazine columns and later her cookbooks, she showed the nation how to cook in new and exciting ways. Her inspiration and example showed younger Australians the pleasurable and creative possibilities of fine dining.

Our national cuisine was transformed. Rosalie Gascoigne Artist Rosalie Gascoigne's hauntingly evocative visual depictions of the Australian landscape have rapidly propelled her into the spotlight of international fame. A Governor-General appointed by the Queen shall be Her Majesty's representative in the Commonwealth, and shall have and may exercise in the Commonwealth during the Queen's pleasure, but subject to this Constitution, such powers and functions of the Queen as Her Majesty may be pleased to assign to him. Such further powers are currently set out in letters patent of from Queen Elizabeth II; these contain no substantive powers, but provide for the case of a Governor-General's absence or incapacity.

Australian Solicitor-General Maurice Byers stated in What is exercisable is original executive power: And it is exercisable by the Queen's representative, not her delegate or agent. The Constitutional Commission report explained: The independence of the office is highlighted by changes which have been made in recent years to the Royal Instruments relating to it.

governor general of australia biography of donald

This remains the case even when the sovereign is in the country: Solicitor-General Kenneth Baileyprior to the first tour of Australia by its reigning monarch inexplained the position by saying:. The executive power of the Commonwealth, by section 61 of the Constitution, is declared to be vested in the Queen. It is also, in the same section, declared to be "exercisable" by the Governor-General as the Queen's representative.

In the face of this provision, I feel it is difficult to contend that the Queen, even though present in Australia, may exercise in person functions of executive government which are specifically assigned by the constitution to the Governor-General.

As early asthe authoritative commentary by Quick and Garran had noted that the Governor-General of Australia was distinguished from other Empire Governors-General by the fact that "[t]he principal and most important of his powers and functions, legislative as well as executive, are expressly conferred on him by the terms of the Constitution itself Harrison Moore a contributor to the first draft of the constitution put before the Adelaide Convention and professor of law at the University of Melbournepostulated that the letters patent and the royal instructions issued by Queen Victoria were unnecessary "or even of doubtful legality".

The monarch chose not to intervene during the Australian constitutional crisisin which Governor-General Sir John Kerr dismissed the Labor government of Gough Whitlamon the basis that such a decision is a matter "clearly placed within the jurisdiction of the Governor-General". Through her Private Secretary, she wrote that she "has no part in the decisions which the Governor-General must take in accordance with the Constitution".

He stated that the Governor-General was more than a representative of the sovereign, explaining: The constitution describes the parliament of the commonwealth as consisting of the Queen, the Senate and the House of Representatives.

John Kerr (governor-general)

Section 5 states that "the Governor-General may appoint such times for holding the sessions of the Parliament Such decisions are usually taken on the advice of the prime minister, although that is not stated in the constitution.

The Governor-General has a ceremonial role in swearing in and accepting the resignations of Members of Parliament. They appoint a deputy, to whom members make an oath of allegiance before they take their seats.

On the day parliament opens, the Governor-General makes a speech, entirely written by the government, explaining the government's proposed legislative program.

The most important power is found in section Sections 58 to 60 allow the Governor-General to withhold assent, suggest changes, refer to the Queen or proclaim that the Queen has annulled the legislation. Such assent has usually been given during a scheduled visit to Australia by the Queen. On other occasions Royal Assent has been given elsewhere. At the start of Chapter 2 on executive government, the constitution says "The executive power of the Commonwealth is vested in the Queen and is exercisable by the Governor-General as the Queen's representative".

By convention, the prime minister is appointed to this council and advises as to which parliamentarians shall become ministers and parliamentary secretaries. In the constitution, the words "Governor-General-in-council" mean the Governor-General acting with the advice of the Council.

Powers exercised in council, which are not reserve powers, include:. Section 68, says "command-in-chief of naval and military forces In an administrative sense, the office of Governor-General is regulated by the Governor-General Act In the United Kingdom, the reserve powers of the monarch which are typically referred to as the " royal prerogative " [25] are not explicitly stated in constitutional enactments, and are the province of convention and common law. Those powers are generally and routinely exercised on ministerial advice, but the Governor-General retains the ability to act independently in certain circumstances, as governed by convention.

It is generally held that the Governor-General may use powers without ministerial advice in the following situations:. The above is not an exhaustive list, and new situations may arise. The most notable use of the reserve powers occurred in Novemberin the course of the Australian constitutional crisis.

On this occasion the Governor-General, Sir John Kerrdismissed the government of Gough Whitlam when the Senate withheld Supply to the government, even though Whitlam retained the confidence of the House of Representatives.

Kerr determined that he had both the right and the duty to dismiss the government and commission a new government that would recommend a dissolution of the Parliament. In addition to the formal constitutional role, the Governor-General has a representative and ceremonial role, though the extent and nature of that role has depended on the expectations of the time, the individual in office at the time, the wishes of the incumbent government, and the individual's reputation in the wider community.

Governors-General generally become patrons of various charitable institutions, present honours and awards, host functions for various groups of people including ambassadors to and from other countries, and travel widely throughout Australia. Sir William Deane Governor-General — described one of his functions as being "Chief Mourner" at prominent funerals. In Commentaries on the Constitution of the Commonwealth of AustraliaGarran noted that, since the Australian executive is national in nature being dependent on the nationally elected House of Representatives, rather than the Senate"the Governor-General, as the official head of the Executive, does not in the smallest degree represent any federal element; if he represents anything he is the image and embodiment of national unity and the outward and visible representation of the Imperial relationship of the Commonwealth".

That role can become controversial, however, if the Governor-General becomes unpopular with sections of the community. The public role adopted by Sir John Kerr was curtailed considerably after the constitutional crisis of ; Sir William Deane's public statements on political issues produced some hostility towards him; and some charities disassociated themselves from Peter Hollingworth after the issue of his management of sex abuse cases during his time as Anglican Archbishop of Brisbane became a matter of controversy.

At one time, Governors-General wore the traditional court uniformconsisting of a dark navy wool double-breasted coatee with silver oak leaf and fern embroidery on the collar and cuffs trimmed with silver buttons embossed with the Royal Arms and with bullion edged epaulettes on the shoulders, dark navy trousers with a wide band of silver oak-leaf braid down the outside seam, silver sword belt with ceremonial sword, bicorne cocked hat with plume of ostrich feathers, black patent leather Wellington boots with spurs, etc.

However, that custom fell into disuse during the tenure of Sir Paul Hasluck. The Governor-General now wears an ordinary lounge suit if a man or day dress if a woman. Edward's Crown instead of number plates. A similar arrangement is used for the governors of the six states.

governor general of australia biography of donald

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