Mao tse tung biography cortaid
People's Liberation Army Daily. Mao had just fallen asleep and needed the rest, but she insisted on rubbing his back and moving his limbs, and she sprinkled powder on his body.
The differences between him and the Soviet-oriented faction in the party came to a head at the time of the so-called Rectification Campaign of — That program aimed at giving a basic grounding in Marxist theory and Leninist principles of party organization to the many thousands of new members who had been drawn into the party in the course of the expansion since In March Mao achieved for the first time formal supremacy over the party, becoming chairman of the Secretariat and of the Political Bureau Politburo.
Shortly thereafter the Rectification Campaign took, for a time, the form of a harsh purge of elements not sufficiently loyal to Mao. Looking back at that period inwhen the Sino-Soviet conflict had come to a head, Mao declared: InStalin wanted to prevent China from making revolution, saying that we should not have a civil war and should cooperate with Chiang Kai-shek, otherwise the Chinese nation would perish. But we did not do what he said. The revolution was victorious. After the victory of the revolution he [Stalin] next suspected China of being a Yugoslavia, and that I would become a second Tito.
Nevertheless, when the communists did take power in China, both Mao and Stalin had to make the best of the situation. Before the Chinese had time to profit from the resources made available for economic development, however, they found themselves dragged into the Korean War in support of the Moscow-oriented regime in North Korea. Only after that baptism of fire did Stalin, according to Mao, begin to have confidence in him and believe he was not first and foremost a Chinese nationalist.
In such circumstances the Soviet Union provided the only available model. A five-year plan was therefore drawn up under Soviet guidance; it was put into effect in and included Soviet technical assistance and a number of complete industrial plants. Yet, within two years, Mao had taken steps that were to lead to the breakdown of the political and ideological alliance with Moscow.
In a report of Julyhe reversed that position, arguing that in China the social transformation could run ahead of the technical transformation. Deeply impressed by the achievements of certain cooperatives that claimed to have radically improved their material conditions without any outside assistance, he came to believe in the limitless capacity of the Chinese people, especially of the rural masses, to transform at will both nature and their own social relations when mobilized for revolutionary goals.
The tendency thus manifested to pursue his own ends outside the collective decision-making processes of the party was to continue and to be accentuated. In the face of the disorders called forth by de-Stalinization in Poland and HungaryMao did not retreat but rather pressed boldly forward with that policy, against the advice of many of his senior colleagues, in the belief that the contradictions that still existed in Chinese society were mainly nonantagonistic. Henceforth he would rely primarily on the creativity of the rank and file as the agent of modernization. It was against that background that Mao, during the winter of —58, worked out the policies that were to characterize the Great Leap Forwardformally launched in May As a result, the peasants, who had been organized into cooperatives in —56 and then into fully socialist collectives in —57, found their world turned upside down once again in Neither the resources nor the administrative experience necessary to operate such enormous new social units of several thousand households were in fact available, and, not surprisingly, the consequences of those changes were chaos and economic disaster.
By the winter of —59, Mao himself had come to recognize that some adjustments were necessary, including decentralization of ownership to the constituent elements of the communes and a scaling down of the unrealistically high production targets in both industry and agriculture.
At the Lushan meeting of the Central Committee in July—AugustPeng Dehuaithe minister of defense, denounced the excesses of the Great Leap and the economic losses they had caused. He was immediately removed from all party and state posts and placed in detention until his death during the Cultural Revolution. Though few spoke up at Lushan in support of Peng, a considerable number of the top leaders sympathized with him in private. Khrushchev also tried to put pressure on China in its dealings with Taiwan and India and in other foreign policy issues.
The disorganization and waste created by the Great Leap, compounded by natural disasters and by the termination of Soviet economic aid, led to widespread famine in which, according to much later official Chinese accounts, millions of people died.
At first Mao agreed reluctantly that such steps were necessary, but during the first half of he came increasingly to perceive the methods used to promote recovery as implying the repudiation of the whole thrust of the Great Leap strategy.
During the next three years Mao waged such a struggle, primarily through the Socialist Education Movement in the countryside, and it was over the guidelines for that campaign that the major political battles were fought within the Chinese leadership. The movement that became known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution represented an attempt by Mao to go beyond the party rectification campaigns—of which there had been many since —and to devise a new and more radical method for dealing with what he saw as the bureaucratic degeneration of the party.
It also represented, beyond any doubt or question, however, a deliberate effort to eliminate those in the leadership who, over the years, had dared to cross him. The victims, from throughout the party hierarchysuffered more than mere political disgrace. All were publicly humiliated and detained for varying periods, sometimes under very harsh conditions; many were beaten and tortured, and not a few were killed or driven to suicide.
Among the casualties was Liu, who died because he was denied proper medical attention. The justification for those sacrifices was defined in a key slogan of the time: At first they were largely controlled by the army. Thereafter it seemed briefly, in —72, that a compromise, of which Zhou Enlai was the architect, might produce some kind of synthesis between the values of the Cultural Revolution and the pre political and economic order.
The book's phenomenal popularity may be because it was essentially an unofficial requirement for every Chinese citizen to own, to read, and to carry it at all times during the latter half of Mao's rule, especially during the Cultural Revolution. The most widely produced editions of the Quotations of Chairman Mao were published with a printed red vinyl cover wrapper over cardboard with pages bound in 64 folios that included colour photos of Mao.
Other editions of the book were covered in cloth, silk, leather, paper, and other materials. Most editions were produced in a functional, compact size that fitted into a pocket, were easy to carry, and could be taken out at any time "for practice, learning, application. Today in China, the book is a symbol of Mao Zedong Thought.
Among the best known is: In certain situations, the Quotations is given as a gift, for example, when public funds are involved, or when personal events arise, such as congratulating newlyweds, and so on. Foreign press report called the work "The Little Red Book" reflecting its common small size and bright cover. During the s, the book was the single most visible icon in mainland China, even more visible than the image of the Chairman himself.
In posters and pictures created by CPC's propaganda artists, nearly every painted character whether smiling or looking determined, was always seen with a copy of the book in his or her hand.
Various editions are popular with some collectors, and rare and unusual printings command extremely high prices. Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung comprises quotations, divided thematically into 33 chapters. It is also called "Thoughts of Chairman Mao" by many Chinese people.
The quotations range in length from a sentence to a few short paragraphs, and borrow heavily from a group of about two dozen documents in the four volumes of Mao's Selected Works. In the book's latter half, a strong empiricist tendency evidences itself in Mao's thought [ citation needed ]. Usually the quotations are arranged logically, to deal with one to three themes in the development of a chapter.
The table below summarizes the book. Please note that the summaries represent what Mao is claiming or writing in each chapter. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Little Red Book disambiguation.
Retrieved 10 March Cook, Mao's Little Red Book: Retrieved 1 March Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung. China portal Politics portal. Retrieved from " https: CS1 Czech-language sources cs CS1 uses Chinese-language script zh CS1 Chinese-language sources zh Articles that link to Wikisource Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from August Articles with unsourced statements from November Articles with unsourced statements from July Articles with unsourced statements from December Articles with unsourced statements from February Use dmy dates from September Views Read Edit View history.
Han Shi, the first actor ever to have portrayed Mao, in a drama Dielianhua and later again in a film Cross the Dadu River ;  Gu Yuewho had portrayed Mao 84 times on screen throughout his year career and had won the Best Actor title at the Hundred Flowers Awards in and ;   Liu Yewho played a young Mao in The Founding of a Party ;  Tang Guoqiangwho has frequently portrayed Mao in more recent times, in the films The Long March and The Founding of a Republicand the television series Huang Yanpeiamong others.
The Beatles ' song "Revolution" refers to Mao: After Mao Zedong won the Chinese civil war inhis goal became the unification of the "five nationalities" under the big family, the People's Republic of China, and under a single political system, the Communist Party of China. Ngabo had orders to hold the position while reinforcements were coming from Lhasa and fight off the Chinese. It is only a matter of sending a telegram to the PLA group to recommence their march to Lhasa. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Mao disambiguation. For the table tennis player, see Zhuang Zedong. This is a Chinese name ; the family name is Mao. Early life of Mao Zedong. Early revolutionary activity of Mao Zedong. Following the success of the October Revolution in the former Russian Empire, in which Marxists took power, Mao came under the theoretical influence of Karl Marx.
A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another. Brooding over this immensity, I ask, on this boundless land Who rules over man's destiny? When the enemy rests, we harass him.
When the enemy avoids a battle, we attack. When the enemy retreats, we advance. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia.
See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Mausoleum of Mao Zedong. Had he died inhe would still have been a great man but flawed. But he died in Alas, what can one say? Poetry of Mao Zedong. Biography portal China portal Communism portal.
Foreign Languages Press, The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World. Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved August 23, Retrieved April 2, The Cambridge Illustrated History of China.
Syracuse University Press, Mining China's Revolutionary Tradition. University of California Press, Ethnopolitics and the Rise of Chinese Communism, —Stanford: Stanford University Press, p.
Quotations from Mao Zedong on War and Revolution. Retrieved November 12, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Retrieved March 12, Was Mao Really a Monster?: The New York Times.
Retrieved October 2, Going Back to the Future: A Leadership Journey for Educators. Mao Zedong and China's Revolutions: A Brief History with Documents. The lessons of history: In Zhangzhuangcun, in the more thoroughly reformed north of the country, most "landlords" and "rich peasants" had lost all their land and often their lives or had fled.
All formerly landless workers had received land, which eliminated this category altogether. As a result, "middling peasants," who now accounted for 90 percent of the village population, owned American Illusions and Chinese Reality. Basic Books Deaths in China Due to Communism. Mao got this number from a report submitted by Xu Zirong, Deputy Public Security Minister, which statedcounter-revolutionaries were executed, 1, were imprisoned, and another 1, were "subjected to control. Fairbank ; Roderick MacFarquhar June 26, The Cambridge history of China. Mao's China and After: Archived from the original PDF on July 29, Retrieved June 21, Struggling with the Problem of Terror in Early s China".
Archived from the original on June 27, A New HistoryCambridge: Retrieved May 11, BMJ Clinical research ed. Archived from the original on August 9, Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 15 January A Study in Wilfulness".
A new book, banned on the mainland, is becoming the definitive account of the Great Famine. Archived February 10,at the Wayback Machine. South China Morning PostJuly 6, Retrieved September 20, Historical Atlas of the Twentieth Century.
Cold War in the Communist World. Archived from the original on August 8, Retrieved July 28, Mao's Golden Mangoes and the Cultural Revolution.
University of Chicago Press. The Mongo Mango Cookbook. Walder April 6, Retrieved January 28, Retrieved October 6, Zhisui Li February 23, Private Life Of Chairman Mao: The Memoirs of Mao's Personal Physician illustrated, reprint ed. Nicholas Griffin January 2, Eugene Sadler-Smith June 15, Profiting from the Power of Your Sixth Sense. Triplett, II February 14, A History of the People's Republic 3rd ed. Jonathan CapeLondon, A Critical Introduction to Mao. Karl July 23, Heather Timmons December 30, Johan Nylander February 9, Jamie Florcruz January 7, Retrieved October 25, Communist History Through Film".
Chairman Mao Zedong dies". Retrieved October 8, Retrieved January 2, Mao Routledge Historical Biographies. The Black Book of Communism: Harvard University Press Referenced in Governing China: Retrieved June 28, Systematic genocide Archived April 11,at the Wayback Machine. The SpectatorSeptember 25, Retrieved February 8, Retrieved 8 February Father of Chinese Revolution ". A History of World Communism. Archived from the original on August 27, International Maoism in the developing world. Chinese Revise History Books".
Retrieved February 28, A Political and Intellectual Portrait. This remark of Mao seems to have elements of truth but it is false. He confuses the worship of truth with a personality cult, despite there being an essential difference between them. But this remark played a role in helping to promote the personality cult that gradually arose in the CCP. The Trustees of the British Museum, Rhetoric of the Chinese Cultural Revolution: Univ of South Carolina Press. Retrieved July 29, Malcolm Moore May 9, But Mao Xinyu, the Chairman's only grandson, a podgy major general in the People's Liberation Army, had previously promised that "the House of Mao will never engage in business".
Both he and Ms Kong have written books about their grandfather. Retrieved April 30, Calligraphy and Power in Contemporary Chinese Society. China Quarterly 13 Retrieved March 15, China Daily European Weekly. The Beatles Illustrated Lyrics.
Here, There, and Everywhere: The Best Beatles Songs. The story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama. Rapp January 1, Autocracy and China's Rebel Founding Emperors: Comparing Chairman Mao and Ming Taizu. Chang, Jung ; Halliday, Jon A Very Short Introduction. The Battle for China's Past: The medical team protested that the dust from the powder was not good for his lungs, but she instructed the nurses on duty to follow her example later.
The next morning, September 8, she went again. She demanded the medical staff to change Mao's sleeping position, claiming that he had been lying too long on his left side. Mao barely revived and Hua Guofeng urged Jiang Qing not to interfere further with the doctors' work, as her actions were detrimental to Mao's health and helped cause his death faster.
He was taken off life support over 12 hours later quarter to midnight and was pronounced dead at This was chosen as the day to let Mao die because it was seen as an easy day to remember, being the ninth day of the ninth month of the calendar. His body lay in state at the Great Hall of the People. There was a three-minute silence observed during this service. His body was later placed into the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong, even though he had wished to be cremated and had been one of the first high-ranking officials to sign the "Proposal that all Central Leaders be Cremated after Death" in November From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Mao Zedong Official portrait of the chariman.
This portrait also hangs up at the Tiananmen Square in the center of Beijing. Retrieved 13 July Notable people of the Cold War.
Kennedy Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. Shultz Caspar Weinberger George H. Laurent John Diefenbaker Lester B. Botha Hendrik Verwoerd F.
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