Alfred adler biography
This striving for superiority may be frustrated by feelings of inferiority, inadequacy, or incompleteness arising from physical defects, low social status , pampering or neglect during childhood, or other causes encountered in the course of life. Certainly some of his observations, for example that psychopaths were more likely to be drug addicts are not compatible with current methodologies and theories of substance abuse treatment, but the self-centred attributes of the illness and the clear escapism from social responsibilities by pathological addicts put Adler's treatment modalities clearly into a modern contextual reasoning. He was the second out of seven children of a Hungarian born grain merchant.
Early on, he developed ricketswhich kept him from walking until he was four years old. At the age of four, he developed pneumonia and heard a doctor say to his father, "Your boy is lost". At that point, he decided to be a physician. Adler began his medical career as an ophthalmologistbut he soon switched to general practice, and established his office in a less affluent part of Vienna across from the Prater, a combination amusement park and circus. His clients included circus people, and it has been suggested  that the unusual strengths and weaknesses of the performers led to his insights into "organ inferiorities" and "compensation".
In Adler received an invitation from Sigmund Freud to join an informal discussion group that included Rudolf Reitler and Wilhelm Stekel. The group, the "Wednesday Society" Mittwochsgesellschaftmet regularly on Wednesday evenings at Freud's home and was the beginning of the psychoanalytic movement, expanding over time to include many more members. A long-serving member of the group, Adler became president of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society eight years later He remained a member of the Society untilwhen he and a group of his supporters formally disengaged from Freud's circle, the first of the great dissenters from orthodox psychoanalysis preceding Carl Jung's split in This departure suited both Freud and Adler, since they had grown to dislike each other.
During his association with Freud, Adler frequently maintained his own ideas which often diverged from Freud's. While Adler is often referred to as "a pupil of Freud's", in fact this was never true; they were colleagues, Freud referring to him in print in as "My colleague Dr Alfred Adler". He wanted to prove that he had never been a disciple of Freud's but rather that Freud had sought him out to share his ideas.
Adler founded the Society for Individual Psychology in after his break from the psychoanalytic movement. Adler's group initially included some orthodox Nietzschean adherents who believed that Adler's ideas on power and inferiority were closer to Nietzsche than Freud's. Their enmity aside, Adler retained a lifelong admiration for Freud's ideas on dreams and credited him with creating a scientific approach to their clinical utilization Fiebert, Nevertheless, even regarding dream interpretation, Adler had his own theoretical and clinical approach.
The primary differences between Adler and Freud centered on Adler's contention that the social realm exteriority is as important to psychology as is the internal realm interiority. The dynamics of power and compensation extend beyond sexuality, and gender and politics can be as important as libido. Moreover, Freud did not share Adler's socialist beliefs, the latter's wife being for example an intimate friend of many of the Russian Marxists such as Leon Trotsky. Following Adler's break from Freud, he enjoyed considerable success and celebrity in building an independent school of psychotherapy and a unique personality theory.
He traveled and lectured for a period of 25 years promoting his socially oriented approach. His intent was to build a movement that would rival, even supplant, others in psychology by arguing for the holistic integrity of psychological well-being with that of social equality.
Adler's efforts were halted by World War Iduring which he served as a doctor with the Austrian Army. After the conclusion of the war, his influence increased greatly. In the s, he established a number of child guidance clinics. From onwards, he was a frequent lecturer in Europe and the United States, becoming a visiting professor at Columbia University in His clinical treatment methods for adults were aimed at uncovering the hidden purpose of symptoms using the therapeutic functions of insight and meaning. This allows the clinician and patient to sit together more or less as equals.
Clinically, Adler's methods are not limited to treatment after-the-fact but extend to the realm of prevention by preempting future problems in the child. Prevention strategies include encouraging and promoting social interest, belonging, and a cultural shift within families and communities that leads to the eradication of pampering and neglect especially corporal punishment.
Adler's popularity was related to the comparative optimism and comprehensibility of his ideas. He often wrote for the lay public. Adler always retained a pragmatic approach that was task-oriented. Their success depends on cooperation.
Alfred Adler Biography & Contributions
The tasks of life are not to be considered in isolation since, as Adler famously commented, "they all throw cross-lights on one another". In his bestselling book, Man's Search for MeaningDr. According to logotherapythe striving to find a meaning in one's life is the primary motivational force in man. That is why I speak of a will to meaning in contrast to the "pleasure principle" or, as we could also term it, the will to pleasure on which Freudian psychoanalysis is centered, as well as in contrast to the will to power stressed by Adlerian psychology.
In the early s, after most of Adler's Austrian clinics had been closed due to his Jewish heritage despite his conversion to ChristianityAdler left Austria for a professorship at the Long Island College of Medicine in the US. Adler died from a heart attack in in AberdeenScotland, during a lecture tour, although his remains went missing and were unaccounted for until Through the work of Rudolf Dreikurs in the United States and many other adherents worldwide, Adlerian ideas and approaches remain strong and viable more than 70 years after Adler's death.
Around the world there are various organizations promoting Adler's orientation towards mental and social well-being. Adler was influenced by the mental construct ideas of the philosopher Hans Vaihinger The Philosophy of 'As if' and the literature of Dostoevsky.
While still a member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society he developed a theory of organic inferiority and compensation that was the prototype for his later turn to phenomenology and the development of his famous concept, the inferiority complex.
Adler was also influenced by the philosophies of Immanuel KantFriedrich NietzscheRudolf Virchow and the statesman Jan Smuts who coined the term " holism ". Adler's School, known as "Individual Psychology"—an arcane reference to the Latin individuus meaning indivisibility, a term intended to emphasize holism—is both a social and community psychology as well as a depth psychology. Adler was an early advocate in psychology for prevention and emphasized the training of parents, teachers, social workers and so on in democratic approaches that allow a child to exercise their power through reasoned decision making whilst co-operating with others.
He was a social idealist, and was known as a socialist in his early years of association with psychoanalysis — Adler was pragmatic and believed that lay people could make practical use of the insights of psychology. Adler was also an early supporter of feminism in psychology and the social world, believing that feelings of superiority and inferiority were often gendered and expressed symptomatically in characteristic masculine and feminine styles.
These styles could form the basis of psychic compensation and lead to mental health difficulties. Adler also spoke of "safeguarding tendencies" and neurotic behavior  long before Anna Freud wrote about the same phenomena in her book The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense.
Adlerian-based scholarly, clinical and social practices focus on the following topics: From its inception, Adlerian psychology has included both professional and lay adherents. He was quick to point out that while he had been a colleague of Freud's, he was in no way a disciple of the famous Austrian psychiatrist. Adler's theory suggested that every person has a sense of inferiority.
Adler referred to this as 'striving for superiority' and believed that this drive was the motivating force behind human behaviors, emotions, and thoughts. Alfred Adler's theories have played an essential role in a number of areas including therapy and child development. Alder's ideas also influenced other important psychologists including:.
While Adler had converted to Christianity, his Jewish heritage led to the Nazi's closing down his clinics during the s. InAdler went on a lecture tour and suffered a fatal heart attack in Aberdeen, Scotland.
This is our style of life, which is fixed by age four or five Biographical sketch He discovered that depending on whether children were born first, middle or last they had varying methods of coping and attitudes toward life. He thought that the child born second were better adjusted than the first born or youngest.
He also believed that because only children were the center of attention in the family, they may have trouble adjusting in the outside world where this is not the case. This concept of birth order has since been studied extensively Biographical sketch Biographical sketch of Alfred. History of Psychology Archives May Alfred Adler [Online] Retrieved February. Personality Theories [Online] Retrieved February 16, from.
Alfred Adler Biography
Alfred Adler was born February 7, in ViennaAustria. Alfred Adler Institute of San Francisco Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc. Alfred Adler was a physician, psychotherapist, and the founder of Adlerian psychology, sometimes called individual psychology. He is considered the first community psychologist, because his work pioneered attention to community life, prevention, and population health. Adlerian psychology emphasizes the human need and ability to create positive social change and impact. He held equality, civil rights, mutual respect, and the advancement of democracy as core values.
He was one of the first practitioners to provide family and group counseling and to use public education as a way to address community health.
He was among the first to write about the social determinants of health and of mental health. His values and concepts drive our mission, work, and values at the Adler University today. Adler was born just outside of Vienna on February 7,