Krupabai satthianadhan biography of christopher
Sunday Schools, 3; on the rolls, ; Indian Christian scholars, Churches , 2 ; Communicants, , Adherents, 1, They had their trials.
Tom Horn in Life and Legend. U of Oklahoma P, Barber, Malcolm, and Keith Bate. Letters from the East: Crusaders, Pilgrims and Settlers in the 12th—13th Centuries. Der Holocaust in der literarischen Erinnerung: Resisting the Bewitchment of Colonial Christianity. Volume I and II. Brigitte Pichon and Dorian Rudntsky. Marcel Proust and Photography. Industry has developed among them, and the modern missionary is much less often the victim of the loafing rogue who is ever ready to barter his faith for a mess of pottage.
In a leading article, after pointing out the advance made by Indian Christians in higher, primary, industrial and female education, the Madras Mail goes on to say We have now shown that real and substantial progress has been made by Native Christians.
A great future in this land is before this community. It is becoming an increasing power, and can afford to smile at the comtempt with which the old Conservative Hindu regards it.
Owing to its intimate connection with the great churches of Western Christendom, a spirit of freedom and inquiry is fostered in its midst, and it is deeply imbued with a spirit of loyalty to the British Empire, of which it is proud to form a part. XI Quite recently the Rev. Mission, Cawnpore, and a son of the well-known English Prelate, issued a circular to employers of labour in various parts of the country, with a view to ascertain how far the adverse charge brought against the character of Indian Christian workmen is based upon real facts, and the results of his inquiry he has embodied in a carefully written paper.
One of the commonest criticisms passed on Indian Christians is that they are drawn from the lowest classes. But surely an opinion such as this should suggest to critics that in com- paring Christians with non-Christians, they should be careful to compare them with those of like social position.
Westcott points out that they do not hold good generally. The various trades are the monopoly of special castes and a boy of the caste is as soon almost as he can speak and walk, apprenticed to the trade for which he has inherited a natural aptitude and how can we expect a Christian, who usually adopts a trade at a much later period of life, and without the inherent skill begotten of ancestors following the same profession from time immemorial, to compete with such on equal terms?
While admitting the truth of this contention we must at the same time acknowledge the fact that Native Christians, as a class, have not as yet learned to appreciate the dignity of labour ; and, prompted by false ideas of gentility, they despise manual and mechanical labour of every kind. The want of discrimination in the employment of mission agents does very great injury to the community. It is to be hoped that the various mission industrial schools scattered throughout the country will in time bring into existence a large number of qualified Indian Christian workmen in different departments of industry.
But as, at present, there are few trained workmen, it is dangerous to make general statements. Westcott points out, the Christian, wherever he works, cannot fail to be a marked man, and as such his shortcomings will impress themselves more deeply on the mind of his employer. At the same time more than one employer writes that he has noticed a considerable improvement in this class of labourers in recent years. Europeans who come into contact only with the very worst specimens of the servant class are the least fit to judge of the character of Indian Christians, and yet many an Anglo-Indian derives his opinion regarding Native Christian character from this source.
Men with wider and better opportunities of judging of Indian Christians have given other testimonies.
Thousands have been brought over, and in an ever-increasing ratio converts are being brought over to Christianity. And they are not sham nor paper converts, as some would have us believe, but good and honest Christians, and many of them of a high standard. Nlll in religious matters. When they come to large masses of the people, whole villages which had adopted Christianity, then it was possible for those in authority to form some opinion as to whether the change of creed had conduced to the good conduct of the converts ; and he must not refrain from saying that the tendency of the change had been decidedly for good.
Sir Alexander Mackenzie, speaking at a Missionary gatheringin England not long ago, said: INow I have always found that those who thus decry the work of Missions in India, have carefully held aloof from all connection with it there, and have spent their service in complete ignorance of all that was going on in that field even at their very doors, while their knowledge of Native Christians was limited to casual intercourse with a few disreputable specimens of the domestic service type, and even their judgment was more often based upon prejudice than experience I have not only served in Bengal, the Central Provinces and Burma, — all those of which provinces, I have had the honour of administrating, but I have been on duty in Madras and the Punjab, and thus acquainted with mission work throughout the greater part of India.
I have had native Christians serving under me in various higher respectable offices of the Government service. You will, therefore, admit that there is some value in the testimony which I am prepared to bear, that there is no reason whatever for doubt or disparagement of mission work.
On the contrary, the advance made during my time has been substantial and encouraging, and it is my firm belief that the day-spring Gf still better things is very close at hand, while the simple faith and godly lives of many Native Christians might put all, or most of us certainly, to the blush. It is to a great extent free from the social drawbacks under which the Hindu community labours. The Indian Christians have ceased to be restrained by tryrannical social customs and caste preju- dices. Slater, a veteran Missionary, u that has made them free The absence among them of that great social evil, the early marriage system, and the increasing number of intelli- gent wives and mothers, largely account for their present position.
The simplicity of their religious and social life is one of their greatest privileges. Unlike Hindus, whose religious existence is one series of expensive ceremonies, from birth to death, they have no burdensome rites to per- form and learn to practise economy in weddings and funerals.
Hinduism drains the purse and exhausts the time and strength of its votaries. The momenta Hindu becomes a Christian he leaves the land of slavery and breathes the air of liberty. Whilst there is a tendency, on the one hand, among a certain section, especially in Southern India, to favour purely Hindu customs, on the other hand, there is another section that rush headlong in the direction of every thing English and Western ; and between these two sections there are other sections which favour partly Eastern and partly Western habits and customs.
Such varieties we must expect at this stage of transition ; and it would not be prudent to legislate in a hard and fast manner in regard to social matters for the community as a whole.
We do not think that this charge of denationalisation can be brought against the community as a whole. XV meant being influenced by European modes of thought and even European modes of living, the charge must be brought against the people of India in general, for India as a whole has come under the solvent influence of Western civilization. This charge of denationalisation is very ably met by Professor Velinker, M. We have behind us a very old civilisation which had taken firm hold of the social life of our people ; and now we have been brought into contact with a completely new civilisation of such sweep and power that in a very few years it has sapped the very foundations of its predecessor.
We have now to choose our ideals. Shall ours be the Eastern or the Western ideal of life? It seems to me, as I have implied before, that the fiat has gone forth that our country shall march Westward. Let us not blindly kick against the pricks. We cannot long resist the majestic march of Western ideas. Is it not much wiser, and therefore more truly patriotic, to enthusi- astically imbibe the thought and culture of the West ; to make the Western ideal of life and society our own ; and thus to help forward the advancing tide which is sweeping over the country?
I admit that in our enthusiasm for things Western, we are in danger of imitating too much, and often in a way not quite suited to our needs and surroundings ; but these excesses are incidental to a time of rapid change ; and they are certain, in course of time, to be dropped or modified till an adjustment is effected of these new conditions to our national modes of life and thought. Anyhow, much rather over- eager enthusiasm than stolid indifference or that disingenuous love for the old which affects admiration for morals, manners and institu- tions which belong to an altogether antiquated order of things and are therefore destined to perish.
Let us not be misled by any such talk. The East will be East undoubtedly ; we shall retain many of our oriental traits to the end ; but truth is not different for the East and for the West, and our endeavour should be to seek and propagate truth. If we consider Western knowledge to be good, if we consider Western ideas to be true, let us eagerly acquire them wherever they come from.
Let us never be afraid of honest imitation, but let us seek after the best and highest in everything, and eagerly receive it into our minds and souls as we know it. The wise patriot will, therefore, cast aside all ignorant prejudice and will endeavour to acquire and impart truth to his countrymen regardless of the source from which it comes.
But such a separation is inevitable so long as the Christian convert is persecuted and is treated with contempt. In the eyes of a Hindu nothing is more degrading than one of his own kith and kin becoming a Christian.
Under these circumstances is it any wonder that the convert takes a dislike to everything Indian? But now that there is such a thing as a society of Indian Chris- tians, with a recognized status and position, the so-called denationalising tendency is not very conspicuous. If the tendency towards Anglicisation is to be guarded against, the other extreme tendency towards everything purely Hindu is equally, if not more, dangerous. The social customs of the Hindus have all more or less a spiritual basis.
Take, for instance, the marriage ceremonies and customs. Every one of them has a religious significance. XVJI clings tenaciously to Hindu customs, is most under the dominance of the spirit of caste.
The Indian Christian community has not got a past. This is, no doubt, in one respect, a source of weakness, but situated as it is, it is more easily drawn towards western than towards eastern ideals, but the social ideal which we must work out for the community must be something neither purely eastern nor purely western, but a happy blending of the best elements of both. Indian Chrsitians, as a whole, do not seem to be very keen on the subject of politics. Individual Indian Christians, such as the late Dr. M, Bannerjee, Babu Kalichburn Bannerjee and-others, have taken an active part in politics, and their political work has been highly appreciated, not only by the community at large, but also by Government ; but the reason why the majority of Indian Christians keep aloof from the political agitation of the day is their lurking- suspicion that this agitation is not at bottom prompted by feelings of true loyalty.
There can be no doubt, however, of the intense loyalty of Indian Christians. When we consider the fact that at the time of the mutiny not one single instance could be found of an Indian Christian associating with the rebels, it speaks volumes for the loyalty of the Indian Christian community.
We need to cultivate broad sympathies, lest our countrymen take us for men of narrow prejudices, and we thus miss the glorious opportunities which are ours at this time when our countrymen are standing, as it were, at the parting of the ways.
And particularly as regards politics, if counsels of moderation, good feeling towards our rulers, and good citizenship, were ever needed, they are most needed at this time of angry and excited feelings. It is a department in which we ought to make our influence felt, and I consider it my duty the more emphatically to urge its claims, as it appears to me that there is an unfortunate tendency among educated Christians in this and other parts of India to ignore these claims altogether.
Let us realise our calling in this direction and endeavour to rise to its height. A word about the spiritual condition of Indian Christians. The writer, having had the inestimable privilege of personal contact and intercourse with the Christians of Europe and America, must admit that the standard of Christian life in India is not as high as it should be.
Indian Christians have no doubt their faults and short- comings, but where Christianity has taken a real hold of the hearts and affections of the people of this land, it has not failed to effect a thorough transformation of character. XIX righteousness and moral strength, which is recognized as the fruit of Christianity.
Need we mention names? Dhanjibhai Naoroji, Pundita Ramabai, and others. And in the humbler spheres of life, there have been hundreds and hundreds who have testified in their lives to the transforming influence of Christianity. In the lives of these men and women we find a distinctly new type of individual character which bears powerful testimony to the renovating and uplifting influence of the religion of Christ.
In this connec- tion the calm, sober testimony of the late Bishop Caldwell will not be out of place: The style of character they exhibit is one which those who are well acquainted with them cannot but love. I think I do not exaggerate when I affirm that they appear to me in general more teachable and tractable, more considerate of the feelings of others and more respectful to superiors, more uniformly temperate, more patient and gentle, more trustful in providence, better church- goers, yet free from religious bigotry, and, in proportion to their means, more liberal than Christians in England holding a similar position in the social scale.
I do not for a moment pretend that they are free from imperfections. On the contrary, living amongst them as I do from day to day, I see their imperfections daily ; but I am bound to say that when I have gone away anywhere, and looked back upon the Christians of this country from a distance, when I have compared them with what I have seen and known of Christians in other countries, I find that their good qualities have left a deeper impression on my mind than their imperfections.
I do not know any perfect Native Christian, and I may add that perfect English Christians, if they do exist, must be admitted to be exceedingly rare ; but this I see and know, that in both classes of Christians may be traced distinct marks and proofs of the Gospel — new sympathies and virtues and a new heaven-ward aim.
The above brief review of the actual position of the Indian Christian community given above should fill us with thank- fulness for the progress we have made ; but we should not allow this feeling of thankfulness to degenerate into one of self-complacency or vanity which will cripple our powers of usefulness. Our community is rapidly increasing in numbers both from within by the natural law of population and from without by accessions to the church.
Our freedom from social evils, which hamper the Hindu community, our habits and the more elevated tone and life amongst us, our better education, the opportunities we have for freer and closer intercourse with European Christians, all these have given us a unique position as a community in India.
Do we realize that we as a community with such unique privileges have a mission to fulfil? We fear that there is a tendency among Native Christians to profit by the civilization which Christianity brings in its train and rest content there, without realising their responsibilities as followers of Christ. Let us not by any means confound Christianity with civilization. Does it appear that civilization alone, with its intercourse and traffic, its arts and useful scheme, its town-crowding industry, its hurry and impatience of restraint, its intensity of individual will, its contempt of authority, its uncontrollable sway of masses ; its unlooked for upturns and reverses, its passionate pursuit of momentary advantages, and its appetite for such gratifications as may be snatched at in all haste - does it appear that civilization alone without the steadying, sanctifying influence of Christianity is likely much to promote the personal and home felicity of our rising community?
It is the Indian Christian convert that is in a peculiarly favorable position to demonstrate to his countrymen, what a great and beneficial change Christ has wrought in him. If by his life and conversation he can make it clear that conversion does not mean merely a change in dress, in food, in language and style of living, but a radical change in life, a thorough readjustment in standards of judgments, in motives and conduct; if he can show what he has gained in self-control, in self-reverence, in charity, in meekness, in power to help others; if, in a word, he shows to his kinsfolk that he is a changed man, — such a presentment of the practical aspects of Christianity would be more im- pressive than anything else.
Great indeed is our respon- sibility as followers of the living God in this our land. We are called to be living Epistles known and read of all men. As we have said, we have much to be thankful for ; for Christianity has wrought miracles in our midst. It has lifted many of us from the mire of social degradation, it has enlightened us, liberated us from the trammels of superstition and custom, it has planted in us the instincts of a free and noble humanity. Our community is the pioneer in every social reform. We are experimenting, consciously or uncon- ciously, while our non-Christian brethren are talking.
Let them come in and see what great things the Lord has done for us. Let them see that we have been baptised and consecrat- ed to the sacred duty of living lives such that men seeing us may glorify Him in whom we are hid.
Our capacity for usefulness as a body of Indian Christians is greatly diminished because of the want of greater union among us.
The Indian Christian community, recruited as it is from all castes and all grades of society, is no doubt composed of heterogeneous elements, but there is the bond of allegiance to a common Master which should obliterate all petty distinctions of caste and rank. It is sad to note that the system of caste, which is opposed to the very idea of the brotherhood of man, finds favour with a few Christians specially in Southern India, and besides this we notice the cleavages brought about by social distinctions and worldly position. The leaders of the community should do their utmost to put a stop to these causes that prevent the realization of a common brotherhood.
Chris- tianity is on its trial in India. Many are watching to see how we are affected by it as a community. Let us resolve to lay at the foot of the cross of Him, who, though He was God, took upon Himself the form of a servant and made himself of no reputation, all our egotism, our self-conceit and social bigotry, and make an earnest effort to realize in the heart as well as in the outward life, our oneness in Christ.
To us, resurrectionized Chris- tians and Christians whose citizenship is in heaven, there is now no Pariah or Brahmin, no ryot or Zemindar, but one new man. Let us build up ourselves into a strong, closely compacted, well-knit community, having something more than the name in common, and let us shew in our lives and character what a tremendous power for good our religion is. If each of us in his or her individual sphere will solemnly resolve to give a helping hand by doing faithfully whatever duty the hand finds to do, if we all work with a single eye to the common welfare and without thought for our indivi- dual advancement or profit, we can accomplish great things in this land.
The coming into existence of a number of Indian Christian Associations in the various provinces within recent years is a happy sign of the times.
XXlll tions afford the very best opportunities for concerted acts of benevolence. Some of them are, indeed, doing very useful work, and are a source of great help to the poorer members of the community.
It is hoped that every city and town in our land which contains a large Christian population will have an organization of its own for the promotion of the welfare of the Indian Christian community.
We do not think that Indian Christians have realized as yet fully the responsibility that rests on them with regard to the conversion of India. This work is still left to be done almost entirely by foreigners and paid agents of Missions.
A great deal has been said of late about the position and status of Native Missionaries, but we fear from the discussions that have been carried on on the subject in the Christian Patriot and other papers, that the Native Ministry is looked upon as a profession just as the profession of law or medicine.
We are constantly told that the reason why Indian Christian graduates do not join the Mission is because their position and salary are not what they should be ; but when it comes to consecrating oneself to the service of God should these trivial matters be made the subject of contention? Just look at the spirit in which a European Missionary enters upon his sacred work.
His one object is to consecrate himself as a free-will offering to His Master, all other considerations are made subordinate so long as he is able to carry out this object. We have no doubt examples of self- sacrificing lives among Indian Christians, but is it not a fact that such lives are more the exceptions than the rule?
How many have we like the Rev.
Devadasan of Nagercoil, or the Rev. Harichandra Khisti of Bombay, or the Rev. Nehemiah Goreh of the Cowley Mission? It is but right that we should have a clear understanding of the principles on which salaries of Native Ministers should be regulated, and the following extract from a paper published by the Calcutta Missionary Conference incontains, we believe, the right view of the question ; and we commend it most earnestly to the attention of the members of our community. The connection of the missionary with a society or a church is not that of a master in the worldly sense who has a work of his own to do and a servant who is hired at the ordinary market price for doing it.
It is rather that of one benevolent individual assisting another benevolent in- dividual to do a benevolent work, in which both are equally interested ; with just so much power of direction as always exists in a donor, to determine the destination of the gift. The services of the Native Christian being consecrated as a free will offering to the work of God, are not services rendered to an earthly employer, to be paid for in money according to their intrinsic value.
They are given, if given in a proper evangelical spirit at all, altogether independently of gross pecuniary considerations. They ought to look for nothing and expect nothing beyond what is included in the supply of necessary wants. Accordingly he is not hired, or adequately recompensed, after the customs or usages that regulate the transactions of mere Government, mercantile, or other worldly business.
Every Indian Christian should consider it his duty to do all he could for the self- support and independence of his own church. The problem of a National Church for India can only be solved after there comes into existence a large number of strong, self-supporting churches. Very little voluntary Christian work is being done by Indian Christian laymen.
There are hardly any indigenous Missionary agencies in India, and it is high time that we made a beginning in this respect. We appeal especially to our young men in colleges who are being brought under unique spiritual influences. It is they that will become the leaders of thought in our community and their influence as such in carrying the glad tidings to our countrymen will be immense.
We do earnestly pray that the opportunities now offered by movements, such as the Y. The formation of Christian literature for the Indians is a most important undertaking, and yet what little has been done towards this object is the result of missionary effort.
We have been criticising the work of foreigners — the good and great missionaries who, in their day and generation, performed a grand work for their Master as they had ability. If their work was imperfect is it not the duty of the natives of the country to come to the front and attempt to accomplish what is necessary to be done? We are told that Christian Daniel, one of the earliest converts in South India, whose translations of some devotional works are still used by Tamil Christians, made a point of devoting an hour a day to literary work for the benefit of his countrymen.
Would that some of our educated Christian men and women followed his example in this respect! In writing these few words of introduction, we have had one object in view, that is to make Indian Christians realize the responsibilities that rest on them as followers of Christ in this land, Christianity has done great things for us, and it is our duty to stir ourselves to greater activity in the service of our common Lord and Master. MadraSy Dec2 QthyS. Founded by Akbar, on the right bank of the Jumna. Indian Christians, about Chiej Trades and Industries.
Missions on the field. Residen t Missiona ries. William Seetal now in England ; The Rev. Communicants, ; Adherents, ; Sunday Schools, 5. Total number of Scholars, ; Indian Christian Scholars, Sunday School Superintendents — Mrs, A. Sunday School teaching indoor and outdoor and village preaching carried on by some of the College students of St. Total number of boys on the rolls, Indian Christian boys, Teachers in Schools, 27 ; College, Indian Christian Male Teachers. This College was affiliated to the Allahabad University to the B. Principal — The Rev. Assistant Professorsfyc, J.
Head Master — S. Lady Superintendent — Miss A. Head Mistress— Miss E. Matron — Miss Atmaram. Head Master— C hirag Masih, Esq. Head Master — J. Head Master — R. Indian Christian boys on the rolls, There is a Mission Printing Press in connection with the Orphanages. Indian Christian girls, Church, i; Communicants, ; Adherents, ; 40 Church members are engaged in Mission work.
Total number of Scholars, Indian Christian scholars, Primary Schools of the Baptist Mission, 5. Total number of girls, 40 all Indian Christians. Indian Christian Male Teachers, Indian Christian Ordained Ministers. William Seetal EnglandC. Tobit ActingC. Elias Massy, Methodist Mission. Indian Christians who have visited foreign countries. Hearne, Esq, Commissioners Office. Bhagvandas, Evangelist, Baptist Mission. In addition to his Pastoral duties, he superintends the work of two Evangelists, partly supported by the congregation and partly by the Henry Venn Fund.
He worked till in Lucknow. Agra Medical Missionary Training Institute. The object of this Institute is to impart a full medical education and systematic religious instructions to qualify Christian Young Men for the work of Medical Missionaries, It has supplied Medical Evangelists to most of the Mission- ary Societies labouring in North India. Students are received from all Protestant sections of the Church of Christ. In connection with the Institute there are a number of Scholar- ships available for deserving Christian Students. Valentine26, Drummond Road, Agra.
David and Sons, Messrs. John Paul and Sons. Speedie, Medi- cal College, Mrs. John's College Debating and Literary Association. President — The Rev. Seeing the desirability of having a Paper in connection with a large Institution like St. The Magazine is to be entirely managed by the Christian students of the College under the direct supervision of the Principal.
But non-Christian Professors, Teachers and students of the College and School department are invited to contribute articles on subjects not likely to arouse feelings of enmity, the main object of the paper being to develop the moral as well as the intellectual side of the students. It is expected that the first number of the Maga- zine will be out in July next. The city was founded by Ahmed Shah in 14 n A.
Jain temples overand the various Missionary institutions. Dhalpatbhai Makan, Catechist and Medical Agent.
Sunday Schools5. This Mission conducts 4 Primary Schools. On the rolls are 1, pupils; Indian Christian, — boys 55, and girls Principal — Joseph Ghose, Esq. Seventeen were sent up for the Matriculation ; 10 passed. Fleming Stevenson Divinity College. During the intervals between the College terms the students on their return to their several stations engage in practical Mission work under the immediate direction of the resident Missionary.
The Salvation Arm 7 teach in their schools 70 boys and 26 girls. Muktipur School is in charge of Ensign Bharousa. Sabarmatti School is in charge of Captain Roshanibai. They have two Industrial schools. Sunday School at- tendance, 1 President — Joseph Ghose, Esq. Pledge signed by members. Madhav Paraji, School Teacher, No. Rama Girdhar has visited foreign countries. Seven Indian Christians are in Government service, and 3 are engaged in Industries.
Satthianadhanan extremely well known Christian missionary.
Her academic performance was brilliant from the start, but due to strain and overwork she had her first breakdown in health a year later, and had to return to her sister in Pune to convalesce in A year later she was back at Madras, where she met and developed a friendship with Samuel Satthianadhan, the Reverend's son.
In Samuel and Krupabai married. In Ootacamund Krupabai was able to start a school for Muslim girls with help from the Church Missionary Societyand she also taught in a number of other girls schools as well.
Ootacamund was a hill station renowned for its salubrious climate and Krupabai's health stayed fair.
She was able to find the time and energy to write, and published articles under the byline 'An Indian Lady' in leading periodicals. Three years later the couple moved to Rajamundryand Krupabai became ill again, so they relocated to Kumbakonam.
In spite of the changeableness of her health this was a very productive period for her, and by the time they returned permanently to Madras in she was ready to begin a full-scale novel. In addition to primary texts, a portion of the course will introduce students to research methods in order to access archival materials related to the British empire; this archival unit will also entail some digital humanities concepts and methods.
The Story of a Hindu Life Archive. Forster, A Passage to India E. Florence Nightingale Among the Novelists Bhatia, Famines in India: