Biography of german president vs chancellor
Gustav Heinemann — North Rhine-Westphalia. Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk — leading minister at Flensburg.
The Weimar constitution provided that the president could be removed from office prematurely by a referendum initiated by the Reichstag. To require such a referendum the Reichstag had to pass a motion supported by at least two-thirds of votes cast in the chamber.
If such a proposal to depose the president was rejected by voters the president would be deemed to have been re-elected and the Reichstag would be automatically dissolved. The Reichstag also had authority to impeach the president before the Staatsgerichtshofa court exclusively concerned with disputes between state organs.
However it could only do this on a charge of willfully violating German law; furthermore the move had to be supported by a two-thirds majority of votes cast, at a meeting with a quorum of two-thirds of the total number of members. The new president's role was therefore informed, at least in part, by that played by the Kaiser under the system of constitutional monarchy being replaced.
Hugo Preussthe writer of the Weimar constitution, is said to have accepted the advice of Max Weber as to the term of office and powers of the presidency, and the method by which the president would be elected. While in office he used emergency decrees on a number of occasions, including to suppress the Kapp Putsch in His term came to an abrupt end with his death in In the election that followed, Hindenburg was eventually settled on as the candidate of the political right, while the Weimar coalition united behind Wilhelm Marx of the Centre Party.
Many on the right hoped that once in office Hindenburg would destroy Weimar democracy from the inside but in the years that followed his election Hindenburg never attempted to overthrow the Weimar constitution. In July Hindenburg adopted the national budget by decree and, when the Reichstag reversed this act, he dissolved the legislature. The years that followed would see an explosion of legislation by decree, where previously this power had been used only occasionally. In MarchHindenburg, although suffering from the onset of senilitydecided to stand for re-election.
Adolf Hitler was his major opponent but Hindenburg won the election by a substantial margin. After reconvening it was again dissolved in September. After briefly appointing General Kurt von Schleicher as chancellor in December, Hindenburg responded to growing civil unrest and Nazi activism by appointing Hitler as chancellor in January, A parliamentary dissolution followed after which Hitler's government, with the aid of another party, were able to command the support of a majority in the Reichstag.
On 23 March the Reichstag adopted the Enabling Actwhich effectively brought an end to democracy. From this point onwards almost all political authority was exercised by Hitler. Hitler's government issued a law providing that upon Hindenburg's death which occurred in August merging the offices of President and Chancellor in Hitler's person. The German constitution, the Basic Law Grundgesetzinvests the Chancellor German, Bundeskanzler with broad powers to initiate government policy.
For that reason, some observers refer to the German political system as a "chancellor democracy". The Federal Government Bundesregierung consists of the Chancellor and his or her cabinet ministers.
The chancellor's authority emanates from the provisions of the Basic Law and in practice from his or her status as leader of the party or coalition of parties holding a majority of seats in the Bundestag federal parliament. With the exception of Helmut Schmidtthe chancellor has usually also been chairman of his or her own party. The current holder of this office, Angela Merkelconsidered to be the planet's most influential woman by Forbes Magazine, is officially addressed as "Frau Bundeskanzlerin", the feminine form of the title.
Use of the mixed form "Frau Bundeskanzler" was deprecated by the government in because it is regarded as impolite and was seen as a way of acknowledging Merkel's future leadership. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.
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Chancellor Her Excellency in international correspondence . September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Human rights Federal Constitutional Court. Joint Committee Gemeinsamer Ausschuss. Electoral system Political parties Referendums. Chancellor of Germany —. List of Chancellors of Germany. Germany portal Politics portal. Retrieved from " https: Chancellors of Germany Lists of political office-holders in Germany establishments in Germany. Webarchive template wayback links Use dmy dates from July Articles needing additional references from July All articles needing additional references Articles containing German-language text Articles needing additional references from September Articles containing Latin-language text.
Germany portal Politics portal. Friedrich Ebert Paul von Hindenburg. Retrieved from " https: Presidents of Germany Lists of national presidents Lists of political office-holders in Germany. Articles containing German-language text. The system created by the Weimar constitution led to a number of problems.
In particular, the fact that the president could appoint the cabinet, while the Reichstag had only a power of dismissal, created a high cabinet turn-over as ministers were appointed by the president only to be dismissed by the Reichstag shortly afterwards. Hindenburg was also able to use his power of dissolution to by-pass the Reichstag.
If the Reichstag threatened to censure his ministers or revoke one of his decrees he could simply dissolve the body and be able to govern without its interference until elections had been held. This led to eight Reichstag elections taking place in the 14 years of the Republic's existence; only one parliamentary term, that of —, was completed without elections being held early. Socialist East Germany established the office of a head of state with the title of President of the Republic German: All government positions of the East German socialist republic, including the presidency, were appointed by the ruling Socialist Unity Party of Germany.
With the promulgation of the Grundgesetz inthe office of President of the Federal Republic in German: Partly due to the misuse of presidential powers in the Weimar Republic, the office's powers were significantly reduced. Not only is he indirectly elected, but most of the real power was transferred to the Chancellor. Because the reunification of Germany in was accomplished by the five East German states joining the Federal Republic, the President became the President of all German states. Twelve people have served as President of the Federal Republic of Germany. Christian Wulff served the shortest tenure 1 year, 7 months and 18 days of all Presidents.
List of Chancellors of Germany
The President is according to Art. This has happened three times:.
There are three living former German Presidents:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the position of President of Germany in the current Federal Republic of Germany.
Chancellor of Germany (1949–)
Human rights Federal Constitutional Court. Joint Committee Gemeinsamer Ausschuss. Electoral system Political parties Referendums. President of Germany — Christian Wulff age 58 since Joachim Gauck age 77 since Interaction between constitutional organs. Articles 67 and Retrieved 7 November Timeline Historiography Military history. Heads of state of the European Union member states. Heads of state of the Group of Heads of state and government of Europe. Partially or entirely in Asia, depending on geographical definition. Recognised by at least one United Nations member.
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